Medline ® Abstracts for References 61,62
of 'Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer): Clinical manifestations and diagnosis'
Correlation of tumour BRAF mutations and MLH1 methylation with germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation status: a literature review assessing utility of tumour features for MMR variant classification.
Parsons MT, Buchanan DD, Thompson B, Young JP, Spurdle AB
J Med Genet. 2012;49(3):151.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) that demonstrates microsatellite instability (MSI) is caused by either germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations, or 'sporadic' somatic tumour MLH1 promoter methylation. MLH1 promoter methylation is reportedly correlated with tumour BRAF V600E mutation status. No systematic review has been undertaken to assess the value of BRAF V600E mutation and MLH1 promoter methylation tumour markers as negative predictors of germline MMR mutation status. A literature review of CRC cohorts tested for MMR mutations, and tumour BRAF V600E mutation and/or MLH1 promoter methylation was conducted using PubMed. Studies were assessed for tumour features, stratified by tumour MMR status based on immunohistochemistry or MSI where possible. Pooled frequencies and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model. BRAF V600E results for 4562 tumours from 35 studies, and MLH1 promoter methylation results for 2975 tumours from 43 studies, were assessed. In 550 MMR mutation carriers, the BRAF V600E mutation frequency was 1.40% (95% CI 0.06% to 3%). In MMR mutation-negative cases, the BRAF V600E mutation frequency was 5.00% (95% CI 4% to 7%) in 1623 microsatellite stable (MSS) cases and 63.50% (95% CI 47% to 79%) in 332 cases demonstrating MLH1 methylation or MLH1 expression loss. MLH1 promotermethylation of the 'A region' was reported more frequently than the 'C region' in MSS CRCs (17% vs 0.06%, p<0.0001) and in MLH1 mutation carriers (42% vs 6%, p<0.0001), but not in MMR mutation-negative MSI-H CRCs (40% vs 47%, p=0.12). Methylation of the 'C region' was a predictor of MMR mutation-negative status in MSI-H CRC cases (47% vs 6% in MLH1 mutation carriers, p<0.0001). This review demonstrates that tumour BRAF V600E mutation, and MLH1 promoter 'C region' methylation specifically, are strong predictors of negative MMR mutation status. It is important to incorporate these features in multifactorial models aimed at predicting MMR mutation status.
Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
BRAF V600E mutation analysis simplifies the testing algorithm for Lynch syndrome.
Jin M, Hampel H, Zhou X, Schunemann L, Yearsley M, Frankel WL
Am J Clin Pathol. 2013 Aug;140(2):177-83.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our experience of adding reflex BRAF mutation analysis following mismatch repair (MMR) protein staining in the test algorithm for Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: Since January 1, 2009, BRAF V600E mutation analysis has been performed at our institution for all newly diagnosed CRCs with absent MLH1 and PMS2 proteins.
RESULTS: Ninety (22%) of 412 patients with CRC had at least 1 MMR absent (65 had MLH1 and PMS2 absent and 25 had other stain(s) absent). BRAF mutation was found in 36 (55%) of 65. Fifty-four (13%) of 412 patients required follow-up after addition of BRAF analysis compared with 90 who would have required follow-up without BRAF analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of reflex BRAF mutation testing in CRCs with absent MLH1 and PMS2 reduced the number of patient contacts by 40% and simplified the genetic testing for LS, leading to cost and time savings.
Department of Pathology, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.