Medline ® Abstracts for References 26,27
of 'Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer): Clinical manifestations and diagnosis'
The frequency of Muir-Torre syndrome among Lynch syndrome families.
South CD, Hampel H, Comeras I, Westman JA, Frankel WL, de la Chapelle A
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(4):277.
Lynch syndrome is the predisposition to visceral malignancies that are associated with deleterious germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, including MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Muir-Torre syndrome is a variant of Lynch syndrome that includes a predisposition to certain skin tumors. We determined the frequency of Muir-Torre syndrome among 50 Lynch syndrome families that were ascertained from a population-based series of cancer patients who were newly diagnosed with colorectal or endometrial carcinoma. Histories of Muir-Torre syndrome-associated skin tumors were documented during counseling of family members. Muir-Torre syndrome was observed in 14 (28%) of 50 families and in 14 (9.2%) of 152 individuals with Lynch syndrome. Four (44%) of nine families with MLH1 mutations had a member with Muir-Torre syndrome compared with 10 (42%) of 24 families with MSH2 mutations (P = .302). Families who carried the c.942+3A>T MSH2 gene mutation had a higher frequency of Muir-Torre syndrome than families who carried other mutations in the MSH2 gene (75% vs 25%; P = .026). Muir-Torre syndrome was not found in families with mutations in the MSH6 or PMS2 genes. Our results suggest that Muir-Torre syndrome is simply a variant of Lynch syndrome. Screening for Muir-Torre syndrome-associated skin lesions among patients with Lynch syndrome is recommended.
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Ohio State University-Columbus, OH, USA.
Ponti G, Ponz de Leon M
Lancet Oncol. 2005;6(12):980.
Muir-Torre syndrome is an autosomal-dominant skin condition of genetic origin, characterised by tumours of the sebaceous gland or keratoacanthoma that are associated with visceral malignant diseases. The cutaneous characteristics of Muir-Torre syndrome are sebaceous adenoma, epithelioma, carcinoma, or multiple keratoacanthomas, whereas visceral malignant diseases include colorectal, endometrial, urological, and upper gastrointestinal tumours. Although Muir-Torre syndrome has a striking familial association and features of autosomal-dominant transmission, it can arise in individuals without a family history or any known mutations. Clinical and biomolecular evidence has suggested that there are two types of Muir-Torre syndrome. The most common is a variant of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, which is characterised by defects in mismatch repair genes and early-onset tumours. The second type does not show deficiency in mismatch repair and its pathogenesis remains undefined. Diagnosis of these rare sebaceous lesions warrants the search for associated internal malignant diseases: the peculiarity of skin lesions and their biomolecular characterisation with microsatellite instability analysis and immunohistochemistry could be used to identify familial Muir-Torre syndrome, allowing clinicians to tailor a personalised programme to screen for skin and visceral malignant diseases in high-risk individuals.
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 41100 Modena, Italy.