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Medline ® Abstracts for References 10,17-24

of 'Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer): Clinical manifestations and diagnosis'

10
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Cancer risks for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers.
AU
Dowty JG, Win AK, Buchanan DD, Lindor NM, Macrae FA, Clendenning M, Antill YC, Thibodeau SN, Casey G, Gallinger S, Marchand LL, Newcomb PA, Haile RW, Young GP, James PA, Giles GG, Gunawardena SR, Leggett BA, Gattas M, Boussioutas A, Ahnen DJ, Baron JA, Parry S, Goldblatt J, Young JP, Hopper JL, Jenkins MA
SO
Hum Mutat. 2013;34(3):490.
 
We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation-carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC), and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria. Heterogeneity in risks was investigated using a polygenic risk modifier. Average CRC cumulative risks at the age of 70 years (95% confidence intervals) for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, respectively, were estimated to be 34% (25%-50%) and 47% (36%-60%) for male carriers and 36% (25%-51%) and 37% (27%-50%) for female carriers. Corresponding EC risks were 18% (9.1%-34%) and 30% (18%-45%). A high level of CRC risk heterogeneity was observed (P<0.001), with cumulative risks at the age of 70 years estimated to follow U-shaped distributions. For example, 17% of male MSH2 mutation carriers have estimated lifetime risks of 0%-10% and 18% have risks of 90%-100%. Therefore, average risks are similar for the two genes but there is so much individual variation about the average that large proportions of carriers have either very low or very high lifetime cancer risks. Our estimates of CRC and EC cumulative risks for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers are the most precise currently available.
AD
Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. jdowty@unimelb.edu.au
PMID
17
TI
Colorectal and other cancer risks for carriers and noncarriers from families with a DNA mismatch repair gene mutation: a prospective cohort study.
AU
Win AK, Young JP, Lindor NM, Tucker KM, Ahnen DJ, Young GP, Buchanan DD, Clendenning M, Giles GG, Winship I, Macrae FA, Goldblatt J, Southey MC, Arnold J, Thibodeau SN, Gunawardena SR, Bapat B, Baron JA, Casey G, Gallinger S, Le Marchand L, Newcomb PA, Haile RW, Hopper JL, Jenkins MA
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(9):958. Epub 2012 Feb 13.
 
PURPOSE: To determine whether cancer risks for carriers and noncarriers from families with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation are increased above the risks of the general population.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively followed a cohort of 446 unaffected carriers of an MMR gene mutation (MLH1, n = 161; MSH2, n = 222; MSH6, n = 47; and PMS2, n = 16) and 1,029 their unaffected relatives who did not carry a mutation every 5 years at recruitment centers of the Colon Cancer Family Registry. For comparison of cancer risk with the general population, we estimated country-, age-, and sex-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer for carriers and noncarriers.
RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 5 years, mutation carriers had an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC; SIR, 20.48; 95% CI, 11.71 to 33.27; P<.001), endometrial cancer (SIR, 30.62; 95% CI, 11.24 to 66.64; P<.001), ovarian cancer (SIR, 18.81; 95% CI, 3.88 to 54.95; P<.001), renal cancer (SIR, 11.22; 95% CI, 2.31 to 32.79; P<.001), pancreatic cancer (SIR, 10.68; 95% CI, 2.68 to 47.70; P = .001), gastric cancer (SIR, 9.78; 95% CI, 1.18 to 35.30; P = .009), urinary bladder cancer (SIR, 9.51; 95% CI, 1.15 to 34.37; P = .009), and female breast cancer (SIR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.59 to 8.13; P = .001). We found no evidence of their noncarrier relatives having an increased risk of any cancer, including CRC (SIR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.33 to 2.39; P = .97).
CONCLUSION: We confirmed that carriers of an MMR gene mutation were at increased risk of a wide variety of cancers, including some cancers not previously recognized as being a result of MMR mutations, and found no evidence of an increased risk of cancer for their noncarrier relatives.
AD
The University of Melbourne, Australia.
PMID
18
TI
Risks of primary extracolonic cancers following colorectal cancer in lynch syndrome.
AU
Win AK, Lindor NM, Young JP, Macrae FA, Young GP, Williamson E, Parry S, Goldblatt J, Lipton L, Winship I, Leggett B, Tucker KM, Giles GG, Buchanan DD, Clendenning M, Rosty C, Arnold J, Levine AJ, Haile RW, Gallinger S, Le Marchand L, Newcomb PA, Hopper JL, Jenkins MA
SO
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012;104(18):1363. Epub 2012 Aug 28.
 
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer predisposition syndrome caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. We estimated the risks of primary cancers other than colorectal cancer following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer in mutation carriers.
METHODS: We obtained data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry for 764 carriers of an MMR gene mutation (316 MLH1, 357 MSH2, 49 MSH6, and 42 PMS2), who had a previous diagnosis of colorectal cancer. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate their cumulative risk of cancers 10 and 20 years after colorectal cancer. We estimated the age-, sex-, country- and calendar period-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancers following colorectal cancer, compared with the general population.
RESULTS: Following colorectal cancer, carriers of MMR gene mutations had the following 10-year risk of cancers in other organs: kidney, renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder (2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1% to 3%); small intestine, stomach, and hepatobiliary tract (1%, 95% CI = 0.2% to 2%); prostate (3%, 95% CI = 1% to 5%); endometrium (12%, 95% CI = 8% to 17%); breast (2%, 95% CI = 1% to 4%); and ovary (1%, 95% CI = 0% to 2%). They were at elevated risk compared with the general population: cancers of the kidney, renal pelvis, and ureter (SIR = 12.54, 95% CI = 7.97 to 17.94), urinary bladder (SIR = 7.22, 95% CI = 4.08 to 10.99), small intestine (SIR = 72.68, 95% CI = 39.95 to 111.29), stomach (SIR = 5.65, 95% CI = 2.32 to 9.69), and hepatobiliary tract (SIR = 5.94, 95% CI = 1.81 to 10.94) for both sexes; cancer of the prostate (SIR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.23 to 3.01), endometrium (SIR = 40.23, 95% CI = 27.91 to 56.06), breast (SIR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.07 to 2.59), and ovary (SIR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.28 to 7.97).
CONCLUSION: Carriers of MMR gene mutations who have already had a colorectal cancer are at increased risk of a greater range of cancers than the recognized spectrum of Lynch syndrome cancers, including breast and prostate cancers.
AD
Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, Melbourne School of Population Health, Level 3, 207 Bouverie Street, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia.
PMID
19
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Risks of colorectal and other cancers after endometrial cancer for women with Lynch syndrome.
AU
Win AK, Lindor NM, Winship I, Tucker KM, Buchanan DD, Young JP, Rosty C, Leggett B, Giles GG, Goldblatt J, Macrae FA, Parry S, Kalady MF, Baron JA, Ahnen DJ, Marchand LL, Gallinger S, Haile RW, Newcomb PA, Hopper JL, Jenkins MA
SO
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Feb;105(4):274-9. Epub 2013 Feb 5.
 
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Previous studies have shown that MMR gene mutation carriers are at increased risk of colorectal, endometrial, and several other cancers following an initial diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We estimated cancer risks following an endometrial cancer diagnosis for women carrying MMR gene mutations.
METHODS: We obtained data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry for a cohort of 127 women who had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer and who carried a mutation in one of four MMR genes (30 carried a mutation in MLH1, 72 in MSH2, 22 in MSH6, and 3 in PMS2). We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate 10- and 20-year cumulative risks for each cancer. We estimated the age-, country-, and calendar period-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for each cancer, compared with the general population.
RESULTS: Following endometrial cancer, women carrying MMR gene mutations had the following 20-year risks of other cancer cancers: colorectal cancer (48%, 95% confidence interval [CI]= 35% to 62%); cancer of the kidney, renal pelvis, or ureter (11%, 95% CI = 3% to 20%); urinary bladder cancer (9%, 95% CI = 2% to 17%); and breast cancer (11%, 95% CI = 4% to 19%). Compared with the general population, these women were at statistically significantly elevated risks of colorectal cancer (SIR = 39.9, 95% CI = 27.2 to 58.3), cancer of the kidney, renal pelvis, or ureter (SIR = 28.3, 95% CI = 11.9 to 48.6), urinary bladder cancer (SIR = 24.3, 95% CI = 8.56 to 42.9), and breast cancer (SIR = 2.51, 95% CI = 1.17 to 4.14).
CONCLUSIONS: Women with Lynch syndrome who are diagnosed with endometrial cancer have increased risks of several cancers, including breast cancer.
AD
Centre for Molecular, Environmental, Genetic and Analytic Epidemiology, Melbourne School of Population Health, Level 3, 207 Bouverie St, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 Australia.
PMID
20
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Risk of pancreatic cancer in families with Lynch syndrome.
AU
Kastrinos F, Mukherjee B, Tayob N, Wang F, Sparr J, Raymond VM, Bandipalliam P, Stoffel EM, Gruber SB, Syngal S
SO
JAMA. 2009;302(16):1790.
 
CONTEXT: Lynch syndrome is an inherited cause of colorectal cancer caused by mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. A number of extracolonic tumors have been associated with the disorder, including pancreatic cancer; however, the risk of pancreatic cancer in Lynch syndrome is uncertain and not quantified.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate pancreatic cancer risk in families with germline MMR gene mutations.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Cancer histories of probands and their relatives were evaluated in MMR gene mutation carriers in the familial cancer registries of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (n = 80), Boston, Massachusetts, and University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (n = 67), Ann Arbor, Michigan. Families enrolled before the study start date (June 2008) were eligible. Age-specific cumulative risks and hazard ratio estimates of pancreatic cancer risk were calculated and compared with the general population using modified segregation analysis, with correction for ascertainment.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-specific cumulative risks and hazard ratio estimates of pancreatic cancer risk.
RESULTS: Data on 6342 individuals from 147 families with MMR gene mutations were analyzed. Thirty-one families (21.1%) reported at least 1 case of pancreatic cancer. Forty-seven pancreatic cancers were reported (21 men and 26 women), with no sex-related difference in age of diagnosis (51.5 vs 56.5 years for men and women, respectively). The cumulative risk of pancreatic cancer in these families with gene mutations was 1.31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31%-2.32%) up to age 50 years and 3.68% (95% CI, 1.45%-5.88%) up to age 70 years, which represents an 8.6-fold increase (95% CI, 4.7-15.7) compared with the general population.
CONCLUSIONS: Among 147 families with germline MMR gene mutations, the risk of pancreatic cancer was increased compared with the US population. Individuals with MMR gene mutations and a family history of pancreatic cancer are appropriate to include in studies to further define the risk of premalignant and malignant pancreatic neoplasms and potential benefits and limitations of surveillance.
AD
Department of Internal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
PMID
21
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Elevated risk of prostate cancer among men with Lynch syndrome.
AU
Raymond VM, Mukherjee B, Wang F, Huang SC, Stoffel EM, Kastrinos F, Syngal S, Cooney KA, Gruber SB
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2013;31(14):1713. Epub 2013 Mar 25.
 
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer has been described as a component tumor of Lynch syndrome (LS), with tumors obtained from mutation carriers demonstrating the DNA mismatch repair deficiency phenotype. Previous studies quantifying prostate cancer risk in LS have provided conflicting results.
METHODS: We examined cancer histories of probands and their first- through fourth-degree relatives for 198 independent mutation-positive LS families enrolled in two US familial cancer registries. Modified segregation analysis was used to calculate age-specific cumulative risk or penetrance estimates, with accompanying Wald-type CIs. Cumulative lifetime risks and hazard ratio (HR) estimates for prostate cancer were calculated and compared with those of the general population.
RESULTS: Ninety-seven cases of prostate cancer were observed in 4,127 men. Median age at prostate cancer diagnosis was 65 years (range, 38 to 89 years), with 11.53% of affected individuals diagnosed before age 50 years. The cumulative risk of prostate cancer at ages 60 and 80 years was 6.30% (95% CI, 2.47 to 9.96) and 30.0% (95% CI, 16.54 to 41.30), as compared with the population risk of 2.59% and 17.84%, respectively. The overall prostate cancer HR among carriers was 1.99 (95% CI, 1.31 to 3.03).
CONCLUSION: The cumulative lifetime risk of prostate cancer in individuals with LS is two-fold higher than in the general population and is slightly higher in carriers diagnosed before age 60 years (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.59). These estimates are clinically valuable to quantify risk for both patients and providers.
AD
University of Michigan, 300 North Ingalls, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5419, USA. vraymond@umich.edu
PMID
22
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Risk of breast cancer in Lynch syndrome: a systematic review.
AU
Win AK, Lindor NM, Jenkins MA
SO
Breast Cancer Res. 2013;15(2):R27. Epub 2013 Mar 19.
 
INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility caused by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Mutation carriers have a substantial burden of increased risks of cancers of the colon, rectum, endometrium and several other organs which generally occur at younger ages than for the general population. The issue of whether breast cancer risk is increased for MMR gene mutation carriers has been debated with evidence for and against this association.
METHODS: Using the PUBMED, we identified all relevant studies of breast cancer associated with Lynch syndrome that were published by 15 December 2012. In the review, we included: (i) molecular studies that reported microsatellite instability and/or immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tumors of MMR gene mutation carriers; and (ii) risk studies that investigated risk of breast cancer for confirmed MMR gene mutation carriers or families or clinically and/or pathologically defined Lynch syndrome families.
RESULTS: We identified 15 molecular studies and, when combined, observed 62 of 122 (51%; 95% CI 42 to 60%) breast cancers in MMR gene mutation carriers were MMR-deficient. Of the 21 risk studies identified, 13 did not observe statistical evidence for anassociation of breast cancer risk with Lynch syndrome while 8 studies found an increased risk of breast cancer ranging from 2- to 18-fold compared with the general population (or non-carriers). There is only one prospective study demonstrating an elevated risk of breast cancer for MMR gene mutation carriers compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio 3.95; 95% CI 1.59, 8.13).
CONCLUSIONS: Since breast cancer is a relatively common disease in the general population, more precise estimates of risk and gene-specific risks will need to utilize large prospective cohort studies with a long follow-up. While current data are inconclusive at a population level, individual tumor testing results suggest that MMR deficiency is involved with breast cancers in some individuals with Lynch syndrome.
AD
PMID
23
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Risk of prostate cancer in Lynch syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
AU
Ryan S, Jenkins MA, Win AK
SO
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23(3):437. Epub 2014 Jan 14.
 
It has been controversial that men carrying a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation (Lynch syndrome) are at heightened risk of prostate cancer given that an increased risk is likely to be modest and the prevalence of prostate cancer is high. We used PubMed to search for "molecular studies" that reported MMR-deficiency status of prostate cancer tumors in men with an MMR gene mutation, and "risk studies" that reported prostate cancer risk for men known or suspected to have an MMR gene mutation relative to that for noncarriers or the general population. Of the six molecular studies, 32 of 44 [73%, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 57%-85%]prostate cancer tumors in carriers were MMR deficient, which equates to carriers having a 3.67-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (95% CI, 2.32-6.67). Of the 12 risk studies, we estimated a 2.13-fold increased risk of prostate cancer (95% CI, 1.45-2.80) for male carriers in clinic-based retrospective cohorts, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.27-2.95) for male carriers with a prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer, and 2.28 (95% CI, 1.37-3.19) for all men from mutation-carrying families. The combination of evidence from molecular and risk studies in the current literature supports consideration of prostate cancer as part of Lynch syndrome.
AD
Authors' Affiliation: Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
PMID
24
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Lynch syndrome and cervical cancer.
AU
Antill YC, Dowty JG, Win AK, Thompson T, Walsh MD, Cummings MC, Gallinger S, Lindor NM, Le Marchand L, Hopper JL, Newcomb PA, Haile RW, Church J, Tucker KM, Buchanan DD, Young JP, Winship IM, Jenkins MA
SO
Int J Cancer. 2015;137(11):2757. Epub 2015 Jul 14.
 
Carriers of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes are at increased risk of several cancers including colorectal and gynecologic cancers (Lynch syndrome). There is no substantial evidence that these mutations are associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. A total of 369 families with at least one carrier of a mutation in a MMR gene (133 MLH1, 174 MSH2, 35 MSH6 and 27 PMS2) were ascertained via population cancer registries or via family cancer clinics in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and USA. Personal and family histories of cancer were obtained from participant interviews. Modified segregation analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio (incidence rates for carriers relative to those for the general population), and age-specific cumulative risks of cervical cancer for carriers. A total of 65 cases of cervical cancer were reported (including 10 verified by pathology reports). The estimated incidence was 5.6 fold (95% CI: 2.3-13.8; p = 0.001) higher for carriers than for the general population with a corresponding cumulative risk to 80 years of 4.5% (95% CI: 1.9-10.7%) compared with 0.8% for the general population. The mean age at diagnosis was 43.1 years (95% CI: 40.0-46.2), 3.9 years younger than the reported USA population mean of 47.0 years (p = 0.02). Women with MMR gene mutations were found to have an increased risk of cervical cancer. Due to limited pathology verification we cannot be certain that a proportion of these cases were not lower uterine segment endometrial cancers involving the endocervix, a recognized cancer of Lynch syndrome.
AD
Familial Cancer Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Cabrini Health and Southern Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
PMID