Medline ® Abstract for Reference 72
of 'Kidney and patient outcomes after acute kidney injury in adults'
Prevalence and clinical outcome associated with preexisting malnutrition in acute renal failure: a prospective cohort study.
Fiaccadori E, Lombardi M, Leonardi S, Rotelli CF, Tortorella G, Borghetti A
J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10(3):581.
Malnutrition is a frequent finding in hospitalized patients and is associated with an increased risk of subsequent in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Both prevalence and prognostic relevance of preexisting malnutrition in patients referred to nephrology wards for acute renal failure (ARF) are still unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that malnutrition is frequent in such clinical setting, and is associated with excess in-hospital morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort of 309 patients admitted to a renal intermediate care unit during a 42-mo period with ARF diagnosis was studied. Patients with malnutrition were identified at admission by the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status method (SGA); nutritional status was also evaluated by anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and morbidity, and use of health care resources. In-hospital mortality was 39% (120 of 309); renal replacement therapies (hemodialysis or continuous hemofiltration) were performed in 67% of patients (206 of 309); APACHE II score was 23.1+/-8.2 (range, 10 to 52). Severe malnutrition by SGA was found in 42% of patients with ARF; anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic nutritional indexes were significantly reduced in this group compared with patients with normal nutritional status. Severely malnourished patients, as compared to patients with normal nutritional status, had significantly increased morbidity for sepsis (odds ratio [OR]2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 5.42, P<0.001), septic shock (OR 4.05; 95% CI, 1.46 to 11.28, P<0.01), hemorrhage (OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.45 to 6.13, P<0.01), intestinal occlusion (OR 5.57; 95% CI, 1.57 to 19.74, P<0.01), cardiac dysrhythmia (OR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.85, P<0.01), cardiogenic shock (OR 4.39; 95% CI, 1.83 to 10.55, P<.001), and acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation need (OR 3.35; 95% CI, 3.35 to 8.74, P<0.05). Hospital length of stay was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the presence of severe malnutrition was associated with a significant increase of in-hospital mortality (OR 7.21; 95% CI, 4.08 to 12.73, P<0.001). Preexisting malnutrition was a statistically significant, independent predictor of in-hospital mortality at multivariable logistic regression analysis both with comorbidities (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.71, P<0.001), and with comorbidities and complications (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.89, P<0.001). Malnutrition is highly prevalent among ARF patients and increases the likelihood of in-hospital death, complications, and use of health care resources.
Dipartimento di Clinica Medica, Nefrologia&Scienze della Prevenzione, Universita' degli Studi di Parma, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org