Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 6

of 'Ketamine poisoning'

Ketamine for the treatment of refractory status epilepticus.
Fang Y, Wang X
Seizure. 2015 Aug;30:14-20. Epub 2015 May 19.
Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute and severe illness of the central nervous system, and prolonged SE can lead to brain damage and even death. Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist of glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. During prolonged seizures, the numbers and activities of GABA receptors gradually decrease; thus, the commonly used first-line and second-line antiepileptic drugs gradually fail. Simultaneously, the numbers and activities of glutamatergic NMDA receptors increase, often causing refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and thus providing the possibility of the use of ketamine to treat RSE. To improve the prognosis of SE, we present a narrative review of ketamine for the treatment of RSE in the extant literature. We draw the conclusion that ketamine appears to be effective and relatively safe for the control of multidrug-resistant RSE in children and adults.
Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.