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Investigational biologic markers in the diagnosis and assessment of rheumatoid arthritis

Peter C Taylor, MA, PhD, FRCP
Ravinder N Maini, BA, MB BChir, FRCP, FMedSci, FRS
Section Editor
James R O'Dell, MD
Deputy Editor
Paul L Romain, MD


Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) follow a variable disease course with regard to outcome measures such as functional status or radiological assessment of joint damage. Early identification of patients with RA and, in particular, of those likely to assume a more rapidly destructive form of disease is important because of the possible benefit from early, aggressive intervention with disease-modifying agents. This realization has prompted the investigation and measurement of numerous biologic “markers” in blood and joint fluids that may serve as indicators of prognosis and the response to therapy. Although some of the markers under consideration are accessible in routine practice, many are in the stage of experimental evaluation and require access to specialized technology and customized reagents.


Among the many biologic markers that have been assessed for usefulness in estimating disease activity and prognosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), only a few have found a role in clinical practice. The main clinically useful biologic markers in patients with RA include rheumatoid factors (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). These tests and their clinical use in diagnosis and assessment of disease outcome are discussed in detail elsewhere. (See "Biologic markers in the diagnosis and assessment of rheumatoid arthritis".)


Potential biologic markers that remain investigational can be considered in four categories:

Immunologic (or serologic) abnormalities

Genetic factors, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Jun 3, 2016.
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