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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 55

of 'Intravenous fibrinolytic (thrombolytic) therapy in acute ischemic stroke: Therapeutic use'

Treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage with tranexamic acid after thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator.
French KF, White J, Hoesch RE
Neurocrit Care. 2012 Aug;17(1):107-11.
BACKGROUND: Thrombolytic treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (i.v. tPA) is the only FDA-approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke. There are risks associated with thrombolytics, including intracranial and extracranial hemorrhage and hypersensitivity reactions. Established treatment for post-tPA hemorrhage includes administration of blood products including cryoprecipitate, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets which have poorly established efficacy. Tranexamic acid (TXA) and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) have been studied as hemostatic therapies in post-operative hemorrhage, menorrhagia, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage, and trauma patients. There is no reported literature on the use of TXA to reverse thrombolytic therapy with tPA.
METHODS: This is a case report of a Jehovah's Witness patient who was unwilling to receive blood products after developing symptomatic ICH following i.v. tPA. He consequently received TXA for reversal of thrombolytic therapy.
RESULTS: The patient received a total of 1.675 g of i.v. TXA within 3 h of finishing the iv tPA. Repeat brain imaging with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no further expansion of hemorrhages.
CONCLUSION: TXA is an inexpensive medication which competitively inhibits the activation of plasminogen and can be given to reverse thrombolysis in the setting of hemorrhage after i.v. thrombolytic therapy.
Department of Neurology, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 175 N Medical Drive East, Salt Lake City, UT, Utah 84132, USA. Kris.french@hsc.utah.edu