Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2016 UpToDate®

Intimate partner violence: Childhood exposure

Kathleen M Franchek-Roa, MD
Section Editors
Jan E Drutz, MD
Marilyn Augustyn, MD
Deputy Editor
Mary M Torchia, MD


Intimate partner violence is a common form of violence against women and men. The epidemiology, effects, and treatment of children who are exposed to intimate partner violence and some aspects of diagnosing, screening, and counseling caregivers for intimate partner violence are reviewed here. A more thorough discussion of diagnosing, screening, and counseling women for intimate partner violence is provided separately. (See "Intimate partner violence: Intervention and patient management" and "Intimate partner violence: Diagnosis and screening".)


Women between the ages of 20 and 34 are at the greatest risk for intimate partner violence [1,2] and because many of these women are mothers, millions of children are exposed to intimate partner violence [3-5]. Exposure to such violence is a major threat to children's health and well-being [6-11]. It has deleterious effects on a child's developing brain resulting in long-term adverse consequences [11-13]. Data from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) studies indicate that adverse childhood experiences, such as exposure to intimate partner violence, dramatically affect adult mental and physical health and mortality [14-16]. (See 'Effects' below.)

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) encourages health care professionals to use an ecobiodevelopmental framework to understand how exposure to toxic stress (eg, domestic or community violence, maternal depression, parental substance abuse, food scarcity, poor social connectedness) during childhood can lead to permanent changes in learning, behavior, and physiology [11,17]. Chronic toxic stress in childhood causes physiologic changes that lead to stress-related chronic illness and unhealthy lifestyles in adulthood.

Family violence has a significant impact on an individual's health, as well as community health and health care resources [18,19]. Intimate partner violence frequently remains undiagnosed because victims may conceal that they are in abusive relationships, and the clues pointing to abuse may be subtle or absent. Pediatricians are well-placed to identify maternal intimate partner violence because victims of intimate partner violence seek health care for their children, even if they do not for themselves [20-22].


Intimate partner violence is a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include repeated sexual and physical violence, psychological abuse, progressive social isolation, deprivation, intimidation, stalking, and reproductive coercion. These behaviors are perpetrated by someone who is or was involved in an intimate relationship with the victim and are used to establish power and control over the victim [23-25]. Abusive relationships are characterized by episodic, unpredictable outbursts by the abuser that often begin as verbal and emotional abuse but, over time, tend to become physical. As the abusive relationship continues, the victim begins to live in a state of constant fear, terrified about when the next episode of abuse will occur.


Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Jun 20, 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Catalano S. Intimate Partner Violence in the United States. Washinton, DC: Department of Justice (US); Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2007. www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs (Accessed on September 20, 2011).
  2. Breiding MJ, Smith SG, Basile KC, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization--national intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011. MMWR Surveill Summ 2014; 63:1.
  3. Finkelhor D, Turner H, Ormrod R, Hamby SL. Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Pediatrics 2009; 124:1411.
  4. McDonald R, Jouriles EN, Ramisetty-Mikler S, et al. Estimating the number of American children living in partner-violent families. J Fam Psychol 2006; 20:137.
  5. Moore CG, Probst JC, Tompkins M, et al. The prevalence of violent disagreements in US families: effects of residence, race/ethnicity, and parental stress. Pediatrics 2007; 119 Suppl 1:S68.
  6. Edleson JL. Children's witnessing of adult domestic violence. J Interpers Violence 1999; 14:839.
  7. McFarlane JM, Groff JY, O'Brien JA, Watson K. Behaviors of children who are exposed and not exposed to intimate partner violence: an analysis of 330 black, white, and Hispanic children. Pediatrics 2003; 112:e202.
  8. Hazen AL, Connelly CD, Kelleher KJ, et al. Female caregivers' experiences with intimate partner violence and behavior problems in children investigated as victims of maltreatment. Pediatrics 2006; 117:99.
  9. Kernic MA, Wolf ME, Holt VL, et al. Behavioral problems among children whose mothers are abused by an intimate partner. Child Abuse Negl 2003; 27:1231.
  10. Whitaker RC, Orzol SM, Kahn RS. Maternal mental health, substance use, and domestic violence in the year after delivery and subsequent behavior problems in children at age 3 years. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006; 63:551.
  11. Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, et al. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics 2012; 129:e232.
  12. American Academy of Pediatrics, Stirling J Jr, Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect and Section on Adoption and Foster Care, et al. Understanding the behavioral and emotional consequences of child abuse. Pediatrics 2008; 122:667.
  13. Perry BD, Pollard R. Homeostasis, stress, trauma, and adaptation. A neurodevelopmental view of childhood trauma. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 1998; 7:33.
  14. Anda RF, Felitti VJ, Bremner JD, et al. The enduring effects of abuse and related adverse experiences in childhood. A convergence of evidence from neurobiology and epidemiology. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2006; 256:174.
  15. Dube SR, Felitti VJ, Dong M, et al. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on health problems: evidence from four birth cohorts dating back to 1900. Prev Med 2003; 37:268.
  16. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Am J Prev Med 1998; 14:245.
  17. Garner AS, Shonkoff JP, Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, et al. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health. Pediatrics 2012; 129:e224.
  18. Wisner CL, Gilmer TP, Saltzman LE, Zink TM. Intimate partner violence against women: do victims cost health plans more? J Fam Pract 1999; 48:439.
  19. CDC. Costs of intimate partner violence against women in the United States. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2003. http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/ipv_cost/ipv.htm (Accessed on September 27, 2011).
  20. Bair-Merritt MH, Feudtner C, Localio AR, et al. Health care use of children whose female caregivers have intimate partner violence histories. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008; 162:134.
  21. Martin SL, Mackie L, Kupper LL, et al. Physical abuse of women before, during, and after pregnancy. JAMA 2001; 285:1581.
  22. Rivara FP, Anderson ML, Fishman P, et al. Intimate partner violence and health care costs and utilization for children living in the home. Pediatrics 2007; 120:1270.
  23. Black MC, Basile KC, Breiding MJ, et al. The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/NISVS_Report2010-a.pdf (Accessed on February 16, 2012).
  24. Institute of Medicine. Clinical Preventive Services for Women: Closing the Gaps, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC 2011.
  25. Family Violence Prevention Fund. Preventing Domestic Violence: Clinical Guidelines on Routine Screening. San Francisco, CA. Family Violence Prevention Fund. 1999, Revised 2004.
  26. McCloskey LA, Figueredo AJ, Koss MP. The effects of systemic family violence on children's mental health. Child Dev 1995; 66:1239.
  27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adverse health conditions and health risk behaviors associated with intimate partner violence--United States, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2008; 57:113.
  28. Spivak HR, Jenkins L, VanAudenhove K, et al. CDC Grand Rounds: a public health approach to prevention of intimate partner violence. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014; 63:38.
  29. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Crime statistics. Crime in the U.S. https://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/crimestats (Accessed on January 19, 2016).
  30. Finkelhor D, Turner HA, Shattuck A, Hamby SL. Prevalence of Childhood Exposure to Violence, Crime, and Abuse: Results From the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. JAMA Pediatr 2015; 169:746.
  31. Christian CW, Scribano P, Seidl T, Pinto-Martin JA. Pediatric injury resulting from family violence. Pediatrics 1997; 99:E8.
  32. Edleson JL, Mbilinyi LF, Beeman SK, Hagemeister AK. How children are involved in adult domestic violence - Results from a four-city telephone survey. J Interpers Viol 2003; 18:18.
  33. Schecter S, Edleson JL. In the best interest of women and children: A call for collaboration between child welfare and domestic violence constituencies. Prevention Report, 1995. www.mincava.umn.edu/papers/wingsp.htm (Accessed on September 20, 2011).
  34. Zink T, Elder N, Jacobson J. How children affect the mother/victim's process in intimate partner violence. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157:587.
  35. Ross SM. Risk of physical abuse to children of spouse abusing parents. Child Abuse Negl 1996; 20:589.
  36. Lehrer JA, Buka S, Gortmaker S, Shrier LA. Depressive symptomatology as a predictor of exposure to intimate partner violence among US female adolescents and young adults. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006; 160:270.
  37. Carter LS, Weithorn LA, Behrman RE. Domestic violence and children: analysis and recommendations. Future Child 1999; 9:4.
  38. Coker AL, Davis KE, Arias I, et al. Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. Am J Prev Med 2002; 23:260.
  39. Zolotor AJ, Denham AC, Weil A. Intimate partner violence. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2009; 36:847.
  40. Gunter J. Intimate partner violence. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2007; 34:367.
  41. Hazen AL, Connelly CD, Kelleher K, et al. Intimate partner violence among female caregivers of children reported for child maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl 2004; 28:301.
  42. Kyriacou DN, Anglin D, Taliaferro E, et al. Risk factors for injury to women from domestic violence against women. N Engl J Med 1999; 341:1892.
  43. McCloskey LA, Lichter E, Ganz ML, et al. Intimate partner violence and patient screening across medical specialties. Acad Emerg Med 2005; 12:712.
  44. Moracco KE, Runyan CW, Bowling JM, Earp JA. Women's experiences with violence: a national study. Womens Health Issues 2007; 17:3.
  45. Family Violence Prevention Fund. National Consensus Guidelines on Identifying and Responding to Domestic Violence Victimization in Health Care Settings. San Francisco, CA 2002. www.futureswithoutviolence.org/userfiles/file/Consensus.pdf (Accessed on March 15, 2016).
  46. Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Full report of the prevelance, incidence, and consequences of violence against women: findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. United States Department of Justice., Washington, DC, 2000.
  47. Research in Brief—Violence Against Women: Identifying Risk Factors. United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, Washington, DC, 2004.
  48. Smith J, Berthelsen D, O'Connor I. Child adjustment in high conflict families. Child Care Health Dev 1997; 23:113.
  49. Brooks RM, Mott AM. Domestic violence: what should paediatricians do? Arch Dis Child 2008; 93:558.
  50. Thackeray JD, Hibbard R, Dowd MD, et al. Intimate partner violence: the role of the pediatrician. Pediatrics 2010; 125:1094.
  51. Holt S, Buckley H, Whelan S. The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature. Child Abuse Negl 2008; 32:797.
  52. Gilbert AL, Bauer NS, Carroll AE, Downs SM. Child exposure to parental violence and psychological distress associated with delayed milestones. Pediatrics 2013; 132:e1577.
  53. Kashani JH, Daniel AE, Dandoy AC, Holcomb WR. Family violence: impact on children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1992; 31:181.
  54. Martinez P, Richters JE. The NIMH community violence project: II. Children's distress symptoms associated with violence exposure. Psychiatry 1993; 56:22.
  55. Groves BM. Mental health services for children who witness domestic violence. Future Child 1999; 9:122.
  56. Wolfe DA, Zak L, Wilson S, Jaffe P. Child witnesses to violence between parents: critical issues in behavioral and social adjustment. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1986; 14:95.
  57. Prinstein MJ, La Greca AM. Links between mothers' and children's social competence and associations with maternal adjustment. J Clin Child Psychol 1999; 28:197.
  58. Shipman KL, Zeman J. Emotional understanding: a comparison of physically maltreating and nonmaltreating mother-child dyads. J Clin Child Psychol 1999; 28:407.
  59. Evans SE, Davies C, DiLillo D. Exposure to domestic violence: A meta-analysis of child and adolescent outcomes. Aggress Violent Behav 2008; 13:131.
  60. Hughes HM. Psychological and behavioral correlates of family violence in child witnesses and victims. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1988; 58:77.
  61. Muller RT, Goebel-Fabbri AE, Diamond T, Dinklage D. Social support and the relationship between family and community violence exposure and psychopathology among high risk adolescents. Child Abuse Negl 2000; 24:449.
  62. Zolotor AJ, Runyan DK. Social capital, family violence, and neglect. Pediatrics 2006; 117:e1124.
  63. Howell KH, Graham-Bermann SA, Czyz E, Lilly M. Assessing resilience in preschool children exposed to intimate partner violence. Violence Vict 2010; 25:150.
  64. Currie CL. Animal cruelty by children exposed to domestic violence. Child Abuse Negl 2006; 30:425.
  65. Hurt H, Malmud E, Brodsky NL, Giannetta J. Exposure to violence: psychological and academic correlates in child witnesses. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155:1351.
  66. Campbell KA, Thomas AM, Cook LJ, Keenan HT. Resolution of intimate partner violence and child behavior problems after investigation for suspected child maltreatment. JAMA Pediatr 2013; 167:236.
  67. Kilpatrick KL, Williams LM. Post-traumatic stress disorder in child witnesses to domestic violence. Am J Orthopsychiatry 1997; 67:639.
  68. Pynoos RS, Nader K. Children who witness the sexual assaults of their mothers. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1988; 27:567.
  69. Kilpatrick KL, Williams LM. Potential mediators of post-traumatic stress disorder in child witnesses to domestic violence. Child Abuse Negl 1998; 22:319.
  70. Lehmann P. The development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in a sample of child witnesses to mother assault. J Fam Viol 1997; 12:242.
  71. McCloskey LA, Walker M. Posttraumatic stress in children exposed to family violence and single-event trauma. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000; 39:108.
  72. Groves BM, Zuckerman B, Marans S, Cohen DJ. Silent victims. Children who witness violence. JAMA 1993; 269:262.
  73. Knapp JF. The impact of children witnessing violence. Pediatr Clin North Am 1998; 45:355.
  74. Kitzmann KM, Gaylord NK, Holt AR, Kenny ED. Child witnesses to domestic violence: a meta-analytic review. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71:339.
  75. Zuckerman B, Augustyn M, Groves BM, Parker S. Silent victims revisited: the special case of domestic violence. Pediatrics 1995; 96:511.
  76. Delaney-Black V, Covington C, Ondersma SJ, et al. Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156:280.
  77. Silverstein M, Augustyn M, Cabral H, Zuckerman B. Maternal depression and violence exposure: double jeopardy for child school functioning. Pediatrics 2006; 118:e792.
  78. Jaffe P, Wolfe D, Wilson SK, Zak L. Family violence and child adjustment: a comparative analysis of girls' and boys' behavioral symptoms. Am J Psychiatry 1986; 143:74.
  79. Jaffe PG, Hurley DJ, Wolfe D. Children's observations of violence: I. Critical issues in child development and intervention planning. Can J Psychiatry 1990; 35:466.
  80. Kernic MA, Holt VL, Wolf ME, et al. Academic and school health issues among children exposed to maternal intimate partner abuse. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2002; 156:549.
  81. Mills R, Alati R, O'Callaghan M, et al. Child abuse and neglect and cognitive function at 14 years of age: findings from a birth cohort. Pediatrics 2011; 127:4.
  82. Enlow MB, Egeland B, Blood EA, et al. Interpersonal trauma exposure and cognitive development in children to age 8 years: a longitudinal study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2012; 66:1005.
  83. Koenen KC, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, et al. Domestic violence is associated with environmental suppression of IQ in young children. Dev Psychopathol 2003; 15:297.
  84. Carpenter GL, Stacks AM. Developmental effects of exposure to Intimate Partner Violence in early childhood: A review of the literature. Children and Youth Services Review 2009; 31:831.
  85. Johnson SB, Riley AW, Granger DA, Riis J. The science of early life toxic stress for pediatric practice and advocacy. Pediatrics 2013; 131:319.
  86. Shonkoff JP, Boyce WT, McEwen BS. Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. JAMA 2009; 301:2252.
  87. Centre for Children and Families in the Justice System Canada. What about me!: Seeking to understand a child's view of violence in the family. 2004 https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/abstract.aspx?ID=251035 (Accessed on January 19, 2016).
  88. Fantuzzo J, Boruch R, Beriama A, et al. Domestic violence and children: prevalence and risk in five major U.S. cities. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36:116.
  89. Kim HK, Pears KC, Fisher PA, et al. Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life. Child Abuse Negl 2010; 34:897.
  90. Lee Y, Guterman NB. Young mother-father dyads and maternal harsh parenting behavior. Child Abuse Negl 2010; 34:874.
  91. Taylor CA, Lee SJ, Guterman NB, Rice JC. Use of spanking for 3-year-old children and associated intimate partner aggression or violence. Pediatrics 2010; 126:415.
  92. Renner LM. Intimate partner violence victimization and parenting stress: assessing the mediating role of depressive symptoms. Violence Against Women 2009; 15:1380.
  93. Kiernan KE, Huerta MC. Economic deprivation, maternal depression, parenting and children's cognitive and emotional development in early childhood. Br J Sociol 2008; 59:783.
  94. LaRosa AC, Glascoe FP, Macias MM. Parental depressive symptoms: relationship to child development, parenting, health, and results on parent-reported screening tools. J Pediatr 2009; 155:124.
  95. Jouriles EN, Barling J, O'Leary KD. Predicting child behavior problems in maritally violent families. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1987; 15:165.
  96. Edleson J. The overlap between child maltreatment and women battering. Violence Against Women 1999; 5:134.
  97. Milner JS, Robertson KR, Rogers DL, et al. Child history of abuse and adult child abuse potential. J Fam Violence 1990; 5:1552.
  98. Cappell C, Heiner RN. The intergenerational transmission of family aggression. J Fam Violence 1990; 5:135.
  99. Hotaling GT, Sugarman DB. An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: the current state of knowledge. Violence Vict 1986; 1:101.
  100. Widom CS. Does violence beget violence? A critical examination of the literature. Psychol Bull 1989; 106:3.
  101. Berenson AB, Wiemann CM, McCombs S. Exposure to violence and associated health-risk behaviors among adolescent girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155:1238.
  102. Roberts TA, Klein JD, Fisher S. Longitudinal effect of intimate partner abuse on high-risk behavior among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003; 157:875.
  103. Edelson JL. Problems associated with children's witnessing of domestic violence. Applied Research Forum. National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (Rev 1999). http://new.vawnet.org/Assoc_Files_VAWnet/AR_witness.pdf (Accessed on February 08, 2012).
  104. Edelson JL, Nissley BA. Emerging responses to children exposed to domestic violence. Applied Research Forum. National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women (October 2006). http://www.vawnet.org/applied-research-papers/summary.php?doc_id=585&find_type=web_desc_AR (Accessed on February 08, 2012).
  105. Russell D, Springer KW, Greenfield EA. Witnessing domestic abuse in childhood as an independent risk factor for depressive symptoms in young adulthood. Child Abuse Negl 2010; 34:448.
  106. Siegel RM, Hill TD, Henderson VA, et al. Screening for domestic violence in the community pediatric setting. Pediatrics 1999; 104:874.
  107. Duffy SJ, McGrath ME, Becker BM, Linakis JG. Mothers with histories of domestic violence in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatrics 1999; 103:1007.
  108. Holtrop TG, Fischer H, Gray SM, et al. Screening for domestic violence in a general pediatric clinic: be prepared! Pediatrics 2004; 114:1253.
  109. Bair-Merritt MH, Jennings JM, Eaker K, et al. Screening for domestic violence and childhood exposure in families seeking care at an urban pediatric clinic. J Pediatr 2008; 152:734.
  110. Erickson MJ, Hill TD, Siegel RM. Barriers to domestic violence screening in the pediatric setting. Pediatrics 2001; 108:98.
  111. Borowsky IW, Ireland M. Parental screening for intimate partner violence by pediatricians and family physicians. Pediatrics 2002; 110:509.
  112. American Academy of Family Physicians. Policy and Advocacy. Violence Position Paper. www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/intimatepartner-violence.html (Accessed on February 10, 2016).
  113. Schulman EA, Hohler AD. The American Academy of Neurology position statement on abuse and violence. Neurology 2012; 78:433.
  114. American Association of the Colleges of Nursing. www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/violence-problem (Accessed on February 10, 2016).
  115. American College of Emergency Physicians. www.acep.org/Clinical---Practice-Management/Domestic-Family-Violence (Accessed on February 10, 2016).
  116. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care-for-Underserved-Women/Intimate-Partner-Violence (Accessed on February 10, 2016).
  117. American Medical Association. www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion202.page (Accessed on February 10, 2016).
  118. National Association of Social Workers. https://www.socialworkers.org/pressroom/events/domestic_violence/response.asp (Accessed on February 10, 2016).
  119. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for intimate partner violence and abuse of elderly and vulnerable adults: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 2013; 158:478.
  120. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 518: Intimate partner violence. Obstet Gynecol 2012; 119:412.
  121. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults, Topic Page. US Preventive Services Task Force. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/uspsipv.htm (Accessed on July 24, 2014).
  122. Sohal H, Eldridge S, Feder G. The sensitivity and specificity of four questions (HARK) to identify intimate partner violence: a diagnostic accuracy study in general practice. BMC Fam Pract 2007; 8:49.
  123. Campbell JC, Lewandowski LA. Mental and physical health effects of intimate partner violence on women and children. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1997; 20:353.
  124. Groves BM, Augustyn M, Lee D, Sawires P. Identifying and responding to domestic violence. Consensus recommendations for child and adolescent health. http://www.futureswithoutviolence.org/userfiles/file/HealthCare/pediatric.pdf (Accessed on February 08, 2012).
  125. Mejdoubi J, van den Heijkant SC, van Leerdam FJ, et al. Effect of nurse home visits vs. usual care on reducing intimate partner violence in young high-risk pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS One 2013; 8:e78185.
  126. Bair-Merritt MH, Jennings JM, Chen R, et al. Reducing maternal intimate partner violence after the birth of a child: a randomized controlled trial of the Hawaii Healthy Start Home Visitation Program. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010; 164:16.
  127. Van Parys AS, Verhamme A, Temmerman M, Verstraelen H. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: a systematic review of interventions. PLoS One 2014; 9:e85084.