International adoption: Immunization considerations
- Mary Allen Staat, MD, MPH
Mary Allen Staat, MD, MPH
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; University of Cincinnati
Each year thousands of children immigrate to the United States through international adoption. Internationally adopted children are at increased risk for common infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, intestinal parasites, skin infections, and infestations because they come from resource-poor countries where these conditions are common. Assuring that these children are protected against vaccine-preventable diseases often can be challenging. Many internationally adopted children have poor documentation of immunizations from their birth country or may not have had the opportunity to have received the vaccines routinely given in the United States.
Immunization of internationally adopted children and their close contacts will be discussed here. Infectious diseases in international adoptees and general issues related to adoption are discussed separately. (See "International adoption: Infectious disease aspects" and "Adoption".)
IMMUNIZATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ADOPTEES
Immunizations in the country of origin — Routine immunization schedules vary from country to country and are available for specific countries through the World Health Organization. Most children arrive to the United States with documentation of some immunizations from their birth country. Children often receive some immunizations during the exit evaluation in their country of origin.
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- IMMUNIZATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ADOPTEES
- Immunizations in the country of origin
- Immunization after adoption
- - Valid immunization record
- - Unknown or uncertain immunization
- Serologic testing
- IMMUNIZATIONS FOR FAMILY MEMBERS AND CONTACTS
- Routine immunizations
- Hepatitis A vaccine
- Hepatitis B vaccine
- Additional immunizations for travel
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS