Intellectual disability in children: Management, outcomes, and prevention
- Penelope Pivalizza, MD
Penelope Pivalizza, MD
- Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrician
- Independent practice, Houston
- Section Editors
- Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP
Marc C Patterson, MD, FRACP
- Section Editor — Pediatric Neurology
- Professor of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Medical Genetics
- Chair, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology
- Mayo Clinic College of Medicine
- Helen V Firth, DM, FRCP, DCH
Helen V Firth, DM, FRCP, DCH
- Section Editor — Genetics
- Consultant Clinical Geneticist
- Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK
- Carolyn Bridgemohan, MD
Carolyn Bridgemohan, MD
- Section Editor — Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple etiologies that is characterized by deficits in intellectual and adaptive functioning presenting before 18 years of age . ID is heterogeneous and encompasses a broad spectrum of functioning, disability, and strengths. ID is an important public health issue because of its prevalence and the need for extensive support services. Its management requires early diagnosis and intervention, coupled with access to health care and appropriate supports that lessen disability and optimize progress in functioning.
The management, outcomes, and prevention of ID are discussed here. Other aspects of ID are discussed separately:
The following terms are used throughout this topic (see "Intellectual disability in children: Definition, diagnosis, and assessment of needs", section on 'Definitions'):
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- General measures
- Specific interventions
- - Monitoring for associated disorders
- - Behavior intervention
- - Other neurodevelopmental disorders and mental health problems
- Residential setting
- Transition planning
- LEGISLATIVE MANDATES
- Early intervention
- Special education
- - Mild ID
- - Moderate ID
- - Severe ID
- - Profound ID
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS