- Mariana C Castells, MD, PhD
Mariana C Castells, MD, PhD
- Associate Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Section Editors
- David B Golden, MD
David B Golden, MD
- Section Editor — Bites and Stings
- Associate Professor of Medicine
- Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
- Daniel F Danzl, MD
Daniel F Danzl, MD
- Section Editor — Environmental Emergencies
- Professor of Emergency Medicine
- University of Louisville School of Medicine
- Ted Rosen, MD
Ted Rosen, MD
- Section Editor — Infections and Infestations
- Professor, Department of Dermatology
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Deputy Editors
- Anna M Feldweg, MD
Anna M Feldweg, MD
- Director, Editorial Management — UpToDate
- Deputy Editor — Allergy and Immunology
- Assistant Professor of Medicine, Part-time
- Harvard Medical School
- Elinor L Baron, MD, DTMH
Elinor L Baron, MD, DTMH
- Deputy Editor — Infectious Diseases
- Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine
- Tufts University School of Medicine
The bites of insects may be a minor nuisance or may lead to serious medical problems, including transmission of insect-borne illnesses and severe allergic reactions. Arthropods that commonly bite humans include:
●Kissing bugs (see "Reactions to bites from kissing bugs (primarily genus Triatoma)")
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- Kanno H, Onodera H, Endo M, et al. Vascular lesion in a patient of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites: vasculitis induced by mosquito bite with the infiltration of nonneoplastic Epstein-Barr virus-positive cells and subsequent development of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma with angiodestruction. Hum Pathol 2005; 36:212.
- Yoon TY, Kim YG, Kim JW, Kim MK. Nodal marginal zone lymphoma in association with hydroa vacciniforme-like papulovesicular eruption, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites and insect bite-like reaction. Br J Dermatol 2005; 153:210.
- Yamamoto T, Fujii K, Tsuji K, et al. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus-infected natural killer lymphocytes in a patient with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53:912.
- Cho JH, Kim HS, Ko YH, Park CS. Epstein-Barr virus infected natural killer cell lymphoma in a patient with hypersensitivity to mosquito bite. J Infect 2006; 52:e173.
- McCormack DR, Salata KF, Hershey JN, Carpenter GH. Mosquito anaphylaxis: Hyposensitization with whole body extracts. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994; 93:223.
- Peng Z, Beckett AN, Engler RJ, et al. Immune responses to mosquito saliva in 14 individuals with acute systemic allergic reactions to mosquito bites. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004; 114:1189.
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- Palosuo T, Brummer-Korvenkontio H, Lappalainen P, Reunala T. Immune response to mosquito bites: Characterization of mosquito saliva specific antigens and antibodies by immunoblot technique. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991; 87:300.
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- Moneret-Vautrin DA, Beaudouin E, Kanny G, et al. Anaphylactic shock caused by ticks (Ixodes ricinus). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 101:144.
- Gauci M, Loh RK, Stone BF, Thong YH. Allergic reactions to the Australian paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus: diagnostic evaluation by skin test and radioimmunoassay. Clin Exp Allergy 1989; 19:279.
- Kleine-Tebbe J, Heinatz A, Gräser I, et al. Bites of the European pigeon tick (Argas reflexus): Risk of IgE-mediated sensitizations and anaphylactic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 117:190.
- Hilger C, Bessot JC, Hutt N, et al. IgE-mediated anaphylaxis caused by bites of the pigeon tick Argas reflexus: cloning and expression of the major allergen Arg r 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005; 115:617.
- Commins SP, James HR, Kelly LA, et al. The relevance of tick bites to the production of IgE antibodies to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011; 127:1286.
- Hemmer W, Focke M, Vieluf D, et al. Anaphylaxis induced by horsefly bites: identification of a 69 kd IgE-binding salivary gland protein from Chrysops spp. (Diptera, Tabanidae) by western blot analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998; 101:134.
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- Cuéllar A, Rodríguez A, Halpert E, et al. Specific pattern of flea antigen recognition by IgG subclass and IgE during the progression of papular urticaria caused by flea bite. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2010; 38:197.
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- Rust MK. Advances in the control of Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) on cats and dogs. Trends Parasitol 2005; 21:232.
- Dryden MW. Flea and tick control in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities. Vet Dermatol 2009; 20:435.
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- Chen YH, Lee MF, Lan JL, et al. Hypersensitivity to Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge): clinical analysis and identification of major For t 1, For t 2 and For t 3 allergens. Allergy 2005; 60:1518.
- Chen YH, Hwang GY, Chen PC, et al. Molecular cloning and immunologic characterization of for t 2: a major allergen from the biting midge Forcipomyia taiwana. Allergy 2011; 66:703.
- Uppal SS, Agnihotri V, Ganguly S, et al. Clinical aspects of centipede bite in the Andamans. J Assoc Physicians India 1990; 38:163.
- Guerrero AP. Centipede bites in Hawai'i: a brief case report and review of the literature. Hawaii Med J 2007; 66:125.
- Yildiz A, Biçeroglu S, Yakut N, et al. Acute myocardial infarction in a young man caused by centipede sting. Emerg Med J 2006; 23:e30.
- Senthilkumaran S, Meenakshisundaram R, Michaels AD, et al. Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction from a centipede bite. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2011; 2:244.
- Fung HT, Lam SK, Wong OF. Centipede bite victims: a review of patients presenting to two emergency departments in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Med J 2011; 17:381.
- Medeiros CR, Susaki TT, Knysak I, et al. Epidemiologic and clinical survey of victims of centipede stings admitted to Hospital Vital Brazil (São Paulo, Brazil). Toxicon 2008; 52:606.
- Chaou CH, Chen CK, Chen JC, et al. Comparisons of ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesia injection for the treatment of centipede envenomations in Taiwan. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2009; 47:659.
- Balit CR, Harvey MS, Waldock JM, Isbister GK. Prospective study of centipede bites in Australia. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2004; 42:41.
- Logan JL, Ogden DA. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following the bite of the giant desert centipede Scolopendra heros. West J Med 1985; 142:549.
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Local reactions
- - Treatment
- Papular urticaria
- - Treatment
- Systemic allergic reactions
- - Treatment
- SPECIFIC ARTHROPOD BITES
- - Local reactions
- - Systemic reactions
- Allergic reactions
- Other systemic reactions
- - Disease transmission
- - Disease transmission
- Biting midges (no-see-ums)
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS