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Initial staging and evaluation of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer

Philip W Kantoff, MD
Mary-Ellen Taplin, MD
Joseph A Smith, MD
Section Editors
Nicholas Vogelzang, MD
W Robert Lee, MD, MS, MEd
Jerome P Richie, MD, FACS
Deputy Editor
Michael E Ross, MD


Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide, with an estimated 1,100,000 cases and 307,000 deaths in 2012 [1]. In the United States there will be an estimated 161,000 cases and 26,700 deaths in 2017 [2]. The clinical behavior of prostate cancer ranges from a microscopic, well-differentiated tumor that may never be clinically significant to an aggressive, invasive cancer that ultimately results in metastases, morbidity, and death.

Once the diagnosis of prostate cancer is established, further evaluation that incorporates known risk factors is required to determine appropriate treatment options. The prostate cancer staging system and the initial staging evaluation are reviewed here.

The initial clinical presentation including indications for biopsy, the ramifications of risk stratification, and the approach to treatment are discussed separately.

(See "Clinical presentation and diagnosis of prostate cancer" and "Prostate cancer: Risk stratification and choice of initial treatment".)

(See "Initial approach to low- and very low-risk clinically localized prostate cancer".)

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Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Apr 14, 2017.
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