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Inhaled insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus

Author
Anastassios G Pittas, MD, MS
Section Editor
David M Nathan, MD
Deputy Editor
Jean E Mulder, MD

INTRODUCTION

Therapy with insulin is effective at lowering blood glucose in patients with diabetes, but there is resistance to its use by patients and health care providers because of its need to be injected subcutaneously and because of concern regarding interference with patients’ lifestyle, risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain, and perception that people treated with insulin are “sicker” [1-3]. Consequently, patients with type 1 diabetes may hesitate to embrace multiple-dose injection regimens, while patients with type 2 diabetes may defer initiating insulin therapy, resulting in inadequate glycemic control. Therefore, less invasive options for insulin therapy are desirable.

Inhaled insulin represents a paradigm shift for insulin delivery, as it differs not only in route of administration but also patient eligibility (due to exclusions related to lung disease and smoking) and need for periodic testing for safety. This topic reviews the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of inhaled insulin therapy. An overview of pharmacologic therapy for type 1 and type 2 diabetes including insulin therapy is presented separately.

(See "Management of blood glucose in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus".)

(See "Initial management of blood glucose in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus".)

(See "Management of persistent hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus".)

                               

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Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Thu Jun 18 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2015.
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