Medline ® Abstract for Reference 175
of 'Infusion reactions to systemic chemotherapy'
Four-agent induction and intensive asparaginase therapy for treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Clavell LA, Gelber RD, Cohen HJ, Hitchcock-Bryan S, Cassady JR, Tarbell NJ, Blattner SR, Tantravahi R, Leavitt P, Sallan SE
N Engl J Med. 1986;315(11):657.
We prospectively assigned 289 consecutive children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia to receive one of two treatment programs on the basis of the presence or absence of certain risk factors at the time of diagnosis. Patients at high risk (62 percent of the total) had one or more of the following risk factors: age below two or above nine years, a white-cell count of 20,000 per cubic millimeter or more, the presence of T-cell immunologic markers, radiologic evidence of a mediastinal mass, and involvement of the central nervous system. Patients in both the standard-risk and high-risk groups were treated for two years, receiving intensive remission-induction therapy, central nervous system prophylaxis, weekly administration of high-dose asparaginase, and multiple-drug continuation therapy (which in the high-risk group included doxorubicin and a larger dose of prednisone). At a median follow-up of 35 months, the mean (+/- SE) event-free survival rates at four years among the patients in the standard-risk and high-risk groups were 86 +/- 4 percent and 71 +/- 4 percent, respectively (P = 0.003), for a total event-free survival of 77 +/- 3 percent. Within the high-risk group, the white-cell count at diagnosis and the sex of the patient were not significant prognostic indicators, but age below 12 months at diagnosis was associated with a very poor outcome. As compared with previous methods, this treatment program using four-drug induction and intensive asparaginase therapy has resulted in improved event-free survival in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.