Infective endocarditis in children
- Sharon E O'Brien, MD
Sharon E O'Brien, MD
- Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
- Boston University School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- David R Fulton, MD
David R Fulton, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Cardiology
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Morven S Edwards, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardium and/or heart valves that involves thrombus formation (vegetation), which may damage the endocardial tissue and/or valves. Although uncommon in children, it is important to identify and treat IE because of its significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis, rapid treatment, and recognition of complications are imperative for optimal patient outcomes.
IE is also referred to as bacterial endocarditis because bacteria are the predominant microbial pathogens. IE is used in this review to include both bacterial and fungal endocarditis.
Many aspects of IE are similar in children and adults, but there are some manifestations that are unique to children. An overview of IE in children is presented here. A number of other topics address particular issues in detail, some of which will be addressed here for children:
●Antibiotic prophylaxis of IE (see "Antimicrobial prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis")
●Antimicrobial therapy for IE (see "Antimicrobial therapy of native valve endocarditis" and "Antimicrobial therapy of prosthetic valve endocarditis")
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- Risk factors
- - Congenital heart disease
- - Central venous catheters
- - Rheumatic heart disease
- - Other risk factors
- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Laboratory tests
- - Blood cultures
- - Echocardiography
- Other tests
- Risk factors for IE complications
- Antibiotic regimens
- - Monitoring
- Surgical intervention
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS