Touger L, Looker HC, Krakoff J, Lindsay RS, Cook V, Knowler WC
By age 5 years, offspring of diabetic mothers (ODMs) are heavier and have altered glucose metabolism compared with offspring of mothers without diabetes (non-DMs). This study evaluates the growth pattern of ODMs before the age of 5 years.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:
Anthropometric measures (z scores) from birth, 1.5 years, and 7.7 years in Pima Indian children were compared by maternal diabetes status.
After adjustment for earlier gestational age at delivery (37.8 vs. 39.3 weeks, P<0.01), ODMs were heavier at birth (z score birth weight 0.49 vs. -0.04, P<0.01) than non-DMs. At age 1.5 years, ODMs were shorter than the non-DMs (z score = -0.24 vs. 0.12, P<0.01) but their weight and relative weight (RW; weight adjusted for age, sex, and length or height) were similar. From birth to 1.5 years, ODMs showed significant "catch down" of weight compared with non-DMs (change in weight z score from birth to 1.5 years of ODMs and non-DMs was -0.56 and 0.12, respectively, P<0.01). By age 7.7 years, ODMs were heavier (weight z score 0.89 vs. -0.07, P<0.01) but had similar height as non-DMs. Differences in glucose and insulin concentrations at age 7.7 years were dependent on RW.
ODMs had a dramatically different growth pattern from that of non-DMs. Gestational age-adjusted birth weight was higher. During the first 1.5 postnatal years, the change in weight z score and attained height were reduced. Subsequently, height caught up to that of non-DMs, while weight gain greatly exceeded that of non-DMs.
Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, 1550 E. Indian School Rd., Phoenix, AZ 85014, USA. email@example.com