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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 55

of 'Induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia in younger adults'

Effect of priming with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in younger adults with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: a trial by the Acute Leukemia French Association (ALFA) Group.
Thomas X, Raffoux E, Botton Sd, Pautas C, Arnaud P, de Revel T, Reman O, TerréC, Corront B, Gardin C, Le QH, Quesnel B, Cordonnier C, Bourhis JH, Elhamri M, Fenaux P, Preudhomme C, Michallet M, Castaigne S, Dombret H
Leukemia. 2007;21(3):453. Epub 2007 Jan 25.
In a multicenter trial, 259 young adults (15-49 years) with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were first randomized to receive a timed-sequential induction regimen given either alone (135 patients) or concomitantly with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (124 patients). Patients reaching complete remission (CR) were then randomized to compare a timed-sequential consolidation to a postremission chemotherapy including four cycles of high-dose cytarabine followed by maintenance courses. In the appropriate arm, GM-CSF was given concurrently with chemotherapy during all cycles of consolidation. CR rates were significantly better in the GM-CSF arm (88 vs 78%, P<0.04), but did not differ after salvage. Patients receiving GM-CSF had a higher 3-year event-free survival (EFS) estimate (42 vs 34%), but GM-CSF did not impact on overall survival. Patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics benefited more from GM-CSF therapy (P=0.05) in terms of EFS than patients with other cytogenetics. This was also confirmed when considering only patients following the second randomization, or subgroups defined by a prognostic index based on cytogenetics and the number of courses required for achieving CR. Priming of leukemic cells with hematopoietic growth factors is a means of enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy in younger adults with AML.
Department of Hematology, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France. xavier.thomas@chu-lyon.fr