Incidence and mortality of the preterm infant
- George T Mandy, MD
George T Mandy, MD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Prematurity is defined as a birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks (less than 259 days) of gestation. It is associated with approximately one-third of all infant deaths in the United States. Infants born at or before 25 weeks gestation have the highest mortality rate (about 50 percent) and if they survive, are at the greatest risk for severe impairment.
The incidence and mortality rate of preterm birth will be reviewed here. The risk and pathogenesis of preterm birth and complications of prematurity are discussed separately. (See "Preterm birth: Risk factors and interventions for risk reduction" and "Pathogenesis of spontaneous preterm birth" and "Short-term complications of the preterm infant".)
Different degrees of prematurity are defined by gestational age (GA), which is calculated from the first day of the mother's last period, or birth weight (BW).
One classification based upon BW includes the following categories (table 1):
●Low birth weight (LBW) – BW less than 2500 g
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- Multiple gestation and ART
- PATHOGENESIS FOR PRETERM BIRTH
- Risk factors for preterm birth
- Gestational age and birth weight
- - Extremely preterm infants
- - Late preterm infants
- Level of neonatal care
- - Trends over time
- - Standard of neonatal care
- Regionalization and patient volume
- Effect of evidence-based practice
- AAP policy
- - Center variation
- Congenital anomalies
- Time of death during birth hospitalization
- Post-discharge mortality
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS