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Medline ® Abstracts for References 3,4

of 'Immunotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer with immune checkpoint inhibition'

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Nivolumab Versus Docetaxel in Previously Treated Patients With Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Two-Year Outcomes From Two Randomized, Open-Label, Phase III Trials (CheckMate 017 and CheckMate 057).
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Horn L, Spigel DR, Vokes EE, Holgado E, Ready N, Steins M, Poddubskaya E, Borghaei H, Felip E, Paz-Ares L, Pluzanski A, Reckamp KL, Burgio MA, Kohlhäeufl M, Waterhouse D, Barlesi F, Antonia S, Arrieta O, Fayette J, CrinòL, Rizvi N, Reck M, Hellmann MD, Geese WJ, Li A, Blackwood-Chirchir A, Healey D, Brahmer J, Eberhardt WEE
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J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(35):3924. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
 
Purpose Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 inhibitor, prolonged overall survival compared with docetaxel in two independent phase III studies in previously treated patients with advanced squamous (CheckMate 017; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01642004) or nonsquamous (CheckMate 057; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01673867) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report updated results, including a pooled analysis of the two studies. Methods Patients with stage IIIB/IV squamous (N = 272) or nonsquamous (N = 582) NSCLC and disease progression during or after prior platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned 1:1 to nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) or docetaxel (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks). Minimum follow-up for survival was 24.2 months. Results Two-year overall survival rates with nivolumab versus docetaxel were 23% (95% CI, 16% to 30%) versus 8% (95% CI, 4% to 13%) in squamous NSCLC and 29% (95% CI, 24% to 34%) versus 16% (95% CI, 12% to 20%) in nonsquamous NSCLC; relative reductions in the risk of death with nivolumab versus docetaxel remained similar to those reported in the primary analyses. Durable responses were observed with nivolumab; 10 (37%) of 27 confirmed responders with squamous NSCLC and 19 (34%) of 56 with nonsquamous NSCLC had ongoing responses after 2 years' minimum follow-up. No patient in either docetaxel group had an ongoing response. In the pooled analysis, the relative reduction in the risk of death with nivolumab versus docetaxel was 28% (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.84), and rates of treatment-related adverse events were lower with nivolumab than with docetaxel (any grade, 68% v 88%; grade 3 to 4, 10% v 55%). Conclusion Nivolumab provides long-term clinical benefit and a favorable tolerability profile compared with docetaxel in previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC.
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Leora Horn, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center; David R. Spigel, Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN; Everett E. Vokes, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Esther Holgado, Hospital De Madrid, Norte Sanchinarro, Madrid; Enriqueta Felip, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona; Luis Paz-Ares, Hospital Universitario Virgen Del Rocio, Seville, Spain; Neal Ready, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Martin Steins, Thoraxklinik-Heidelberg gGmbH, Heidelberg; Martin Kohlhäeufl, Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus, Stuttgart; Martin Reck, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf; Wilfried E.E. Eberhardt, University Hospital and Ruhrlandclinic, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; Elena Poddubskaya, N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russia; Hossein Borghaei, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA; Adam Pluzanski, Centrum Onkologii-Instytut Im. Marii Sklodowskiej-Curie, War
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Nivolumab versus Docetaxel in Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
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Borghaei H, Paz-Ares L, Horn L, Spigel DR, Steins M, Ready NE, Chow LQ, Vokes EE, Felip E, Holgado E, Barlesi F, Kohlhäufl M, Arrieta O, Burgio MA, Fayette J, Lena H, Poddubskaya E, Gerber DE, Gettinger SN, Rudin CM, Rizvi N, CrinòL, Blumenschein GR Jr, Antonia SJ, Dorange C, Harbison CT, Graf Finckenstein F, Brahmer JR
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N Engl J Med. 2015;373(17):1627. Epub 2015 Sep 27.
 
BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint-inhibitor antibody, disrupts PD-1-mediated signaling and may restore antitumor immunity.
METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, international phase 3 study, we assigned patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that had progressed during or after platinum-based doublet chemotherapy to receive nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks or docetaxel at a dose of 75 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival.
RESULTS: Overall survival was longer with nivolumab than with docetaxel. The median overall survival was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.7 to 15.0) among 292 patients in the nivolumab group and 9.4 months (95% CI, 8.1 to 10.7) among 290 patients in the docetaxel group (hazard ratio for death, 0.73; 96% CI, 0.59 to 0.89; P=0.002). At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 51% (95% CI, 45 to 56) with nivolumab versus 39% (95% CI, 33 to 45) with docetaxel. With additional follow-up, the overall survival rate at 18 months was 39% (95% CI, 34 to 45) with nivolumab versus 23% (95% CI, 19 to 28) with docetaxel. The response rate was 19% with nivolumab versus 12% with docetaxel (P=0.02). Although progression-free survival did not favor nivolumab over docetaxel (median, 2.3 months and 4.2 months, respectively), the rate of progression-free survival at 1 year was higher with nivolumab than with docetaxel (19% and 8%, respectively). Nivolumab was associated with even greater efficacy than docetaxel across all end points in subgroups defined according to prespecified levels of tumor-membrane expression (≥1%,≥5%, and≥10%) of the PD-1 ligand. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 were reported in 10% of the patients in the nivolumab group, as compared with 54% of those in the docetaxel group.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC that had progressed during or after platinum-based chemotherapy, overall survival was longer with nivolumab than with docetaxel. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 057 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01673867.).
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From the Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia (H.B.); Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Seville (L.P.-A.), Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona (E.F.), and Hospital de Madrid, Norte Sanchinarro, Madrid (E.H.) - all in Spain; Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center (L.H.), and Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology (D.R.S.) - both in Nashville; Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (M.S.) and Robert-Bosch-Krankenhaus Stuttgart, Gerlingen (M.K.) - both in Germany; Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (N.E.R.); University of Washington, Seattle (L.Q.C.); University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago (E.E.V.); Aix Marseille University, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille (F.B.), Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (J.F.), and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes (H.L.) - all in France; Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Mexico City (O.A.); Istituto Scientifico Rom
PMID