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Medline ® Abstracts for References 2,4-7,9

of 'Iliotibial band syndrome'

2
TI
Iliotibial tract friction syndrome in athletes--an uncommon exertion syndrome on the lateral side of the knee.
AU
Orava S
SO
Br J Sports Med. 1978;12(2):69.
 
An uncommon exertion pain on the lateral side of the knee is described in 88 patients, in four of whom it was bilateral. The disorder is a result of the friction of the iliotibial tract over the lateral femoral epicondyle. The syndrome is the iliotibial tract friction syndrome of ITFS. All the patients in the material were active athletes or middle-aged joggers in regular training. The cases were seen over four years and four months. The mean age of them was approximately 25 years, and there were only nine women in the series. Th pain appeared usually after running and was localised on the outer femoral condyle, and often radiated downwards along the iliotibial tract. Conservative treatment and changes in training habits cured most cases. The disorder has not often been described in the literature, and seems to appear only in physically very active people, such as athletes or military recruits.
AD
PMID
4
TI
Iliotibial band friction syndrome--a systematic review.
AU
Ellis R, Hing W, Reid D
SO
Man Ther. 2007 Aug;12(3):200-8. Epub 2007 Jan 8.
 
Iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) is a common injury of the lateral aspect of the knee particularly in runners, cyclists and endurance sports. A number of authors suggest that ITBFS responds well to conservative treatment, however, much of this opinion appears anecdotal and not supported by evidence within the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the conservative treatment of ITBFS. A search to identify clinical papers referring to the iliotibial band (ITB) and ITBFS was conducted in a number of electronic databases using the keyword: iliotibial. The titles and abstracts of these papers were reviewed to identify papers specifically detailing conservative treatments of ITBFS. The PEDro Scale, a systematic tool used to critique randomized controlled trials (RCTs), was employed to investigate both the therapeutic effect of conservative treatment of ITBFS and also to critique the methodological quality of available RCTs examining the conservative treatment of ITBFS. With respect to the management of ITBFS, four RCTs were identified. The interventions examined included the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), deep friction massage, phonophoresis versus immobilization and corticosteroid injection. This review highlights both the paucity in quantity and quality of research regarding the conservative treatment of ITBFS. There seems limited evidence to suggest that the conservative treatments that have been studied offer any significant benefit in the management of ITBFS. Future research will need to re-examine those conservative therapies, which have already been examined, along with others, and will need to be of sufficient quality to enable accurate clinical judgements to be made regarding their use.
AD
Health Rehabilitation Research Centre, Division of Rehabilitation and Occupation Studies, Faculty of Health&Environmental Sciences, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand.
PMID
5
TI
The nature and response to therapy of 196 consecutive injuries seen at a runners' clinic.
AU
Pinshaw R, Atlas V, Noakes TD
SO
S Afr Med J. 1984;65(8):291.
 
We studied a series of 196 running injuries to determine the nature of the common injuries, the type of runners with the different injuries, specific factors causing the most common injuries, and the response of these injuries to correction of the biomechanical abnormalities believed to cause them. The four commonest injuries were 'runner's knee' (peripatellar pain syndrome) (22%), 'shin splints' (posterior tibial stress syndrome) (18%), the iliotibial band friction syndrome (12%), and chronic muscle injuries (11%). Within 8 weeks of following the biomechanically based treatment regimen, between 62% and 77% of the runners with the commonest injuries were completely pain-free and running almost the same training distance as before injury. Only 13% of runners were not helped at all, but most of these had not adhered to the prescribed treatment. The response of the iliotibial band syndrome to treatment was less predictable, however, and some runners who followed the advice faithfully were not helped. These data therefore confirm the importance of biomechanical factors in running injuries and indicate that practitioners involved in the care of injured runners need to know not only how to diagnose the conditions accurately but also which running shoes are appropriate for the different running injuries, how to detect subtle lower limb structural abnormalities, in particular foot abnormalities and leg-length inequalities, and when to prescribe in-shoe orthoses.
AD
PMID
6
TI
A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries.
AU
Taunton JE, Ryan MB, Clement DB, McKenzie DC, Lloyd-Smith DR, Zumbo BD
SO
Br J Sports Med. 2002;36(2):95.
 
OBJECTIVE: To provide an extensive and up to date database for specific running related injuries, across the sexes, as seen at a primary care sports medicine facility, and to assess the relative risk for individual injuries based on investigation of selected risk factors.
METHODS: Patient data were recorded by doctors at the Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre over a two year period. They included assessment of anthropometric, training, and biomechanical information. A model was constructed (with odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals) of possible contributing factors using a dependent variable of runners with a specific injury and comparing them with a control group of runners who experienced a different injury. Variables included in the model were: height, weight, body mass index, age, activity history, weekly activity, history of injury, and calibre of runner.
RESULTS: Most of the study group were women (54%). Some injuries occurred with a significantly higher frequency in one sex. Being less than 34 years old was reported as a risk factor across the sexes for patellofemoral pain syndrome, and in men for iliotibial band friction syndrome, patellar tendinopathy, and tibial stress syndrome. Being active for less than 8.5 years was positively associated with injury in both sexes for tibial stress syndrome; and women with a body mass index less than 21 kg/m(2) were at a significantly higher risk for tibial stress fractures and spinal injuries. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most common injury, followed by iliotibial band friction syndrome, plantar fasciitis, meniscal injuries of the knee, and tibial stress syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: Although various risk factors were shown to be positively associated with a risk for, or protection from, specific injuries, future research should include a non-injured control group and a more precise measure of weekly running distance and running experience to validate these results.
AD
Allan McGavin Sports Medicine Centre, Department of Family Practice and School of Human Kinetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. jtaunton@interchange.ubc.ca
PMID
7
TI
Iliotibial band friction syndrome in runners.
AU
Noble CA
SO
Am J Sports Med. 1980;8(4):232.
 
The iliotibial band friction syndrome is an overuse injury found in long-distance runners. It is characterized by pain on the outer aspect of the knee in close relation to the lateral femoral epicondyle. It is usually poorly localized, is aggravated by running long distances or excessive striding, and is more severe running downhill. It may be prevented by walking with a stiff knee. In a series of 100 consecutive knees, including 6 patients with the syndrome in both knees (age range, 19 to 48 years; average, 31 years), of which 73 were available for follow-up evaluation, only 30 patients were resolved on the initial regimen of a single injection of local steroid and reduction in the training program. Twenty-one patients had two injections and 8 patients required the third injection. The remaining 14 patients were placed on a regimen of total rest from running for 4 to 6 weeks. Nine patients returned to training and had no recurrence of pain. Five patients consented to surgery and returned to long-distance running between 2 and 7 weeks later. The syndrome apparently has a higher incidence in areas where long-distance running is the vogue, such as, South Africa, or where the climate is cool and running surfaces are slippery.
AD
PMID
9
TI
Hip abductor weakness in distance runners with iliotibial band syndrome.
AU
Fredericson M, Cookingham CL, Chaudhari AM, Dowdell BC, Oestreicher N, Sahrmann SA
SO
Clin J Sport Med. 2000;10(3):169.
 
OBJECTIVE: To examine hip abductor strength in long-distance runners with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS), comparing their injured-limb strength to their nonaffected limb and to the limbs of a control group of healthy long-distance runners; and to determine whether correction of strength deficits in the hip abductors of the affected runners through a rehabilitation program correlates with a successful return to running.
DESIGN: Case series.
SETTING: Stanford University Sports Medicine Clinics.
PARTICIPANTS: 24 distance runners with ITBS (14 female, 10 male) were randomly selected from patients presenting to our Runners' Injury Clinic with history and physical examination findings typical for ITBS. The control group of 30 distance runners (14 females, 16 males) were randomly selected from the Stanford University Cross-Country and Track teams.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Group differences in hip abductor strength, as measured by torque generated, were analyzed using separate two-tailed t-tests between the injured limb, non-injured limb, and the noninjured limbs of the control group. Prerehabilitation hip abductor torque for the injured runners was then compared with postrehabilitation torque after a 6-week rehabilitation program.
RESULTS: Hip abductor torque was measured with the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester (kg), and normalized for differences in height and weight among subjects to units of percent body weight times height (%BWh). Average prerehabilitation hip abductor torque of the injured females was 7.82%BWh versus 9.82%BWh for their noninjured limb and 10.19%BWh for the control group of female runners. Average prerehabilitation hip abductor torque of the injured males was 6.86%BWh versus 8.62%BWh for their noninjured limb and 9.73%BWh for the control group of male runners. All prerehabilitation group differences were statistically significant at the p<0.05 level. The injured runners were then enrolled in a 6-week standardized rehabilitation protocol with special attention directed to strengthening the gluteus medius. After rehabilitation, the females demonstrated an average increase in hip abductor torque of 34.9% in the injured limb, and the males an average increase of 51.4%. After 6 weeks of rehabilitation, 22 of 24 athletes were pain free with all exercises and able to return to running, and at 6-months follow-up there were no reports of recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS: Long distance runners with ITBS have weaker hip abduction strength in the affected leg compared with their unaffected leg and unaffected long-distance runners. Additionally, symptom improvement with a successful return tothe preinjury training program parallels improvement in hip abductor strength.
AD
Department of Functional Restoration, Stanford University, California 94305-5105, USA.
PMID