ILAE classification of seizures and epilepsy
- Christian M Korff, MD
Christian M Korff, MD
- Head, Pediatric Neurology
- Geneva University Hospitals
- Elaine Wirrell, MD
Elaine Wirrell, MD
- Professor of Neurology and Director of Pediatric Epilepsy
- Mayo Clinic
- Section Editors
- Timothy A Pedley, MD
Timothy A Pedley, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Neurology
- Section Editor — Epilepsy
- Henry and Lucy Moses Professor of Neurology
- Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons
- Douglas R Nordli, Jr, MD
Douglas R Nordli, Jr, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Neurology
- Chief of Neurology
- Children’s Hospital Los Angeles
- Vice Chair of Neurology
- USC Keck School of Medicine
Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to epileptic seizures . It is a heterogenous condition characterized by multiple possible seizure types and syndromes, diverse etiologies, and variable prognoses. Accurate classification is essential for several reasons :
●To provide a framework for understanding the type(s) of seizure(s) a patient has, other types that are more likely to occur, potential seizure triggers, and prognosis
●To inform the risk of comorbidities (eg, psychiatric, cognitive) and mortality, including sudden unexpected death in epilepsy
●To guide choice of optimal antiseizure drug and surgical therapies
Over the past several decades, significant advances in neuroimaging, genomic technologies, and molecular biology have improved the understanding of the pathogenesis of seizures and epilepsy. In addition, additional epilepsy syndromes have been delineated. As a result, existing International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification systems for seizures and epilepsies have become outdated and inadequate [3,4].To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
- Fisher RS, Acevedo C, Arzimanoglou A, et al. ILAE official report: a practical clinical definition of epilepsy. Epilepsia 2014; 55:475.
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- LEVEL 1: SEIZURE TYPE
- LEVEL 2: EPILEPSY BASED ON SEIZURE TYPE
- Generalized epilepsy
- Focal epilepsy
- Generalized and focal epilepsy
- Unknown if generalized or focal epilepsy
- LEVEL 3: EPILEPSY SYNDROME
- LEVEL 4: EPILEPSY WITH ETIOLOGY
- OTHER CLASSIFICATION VARIABLES
- - Genetic
- - Structural
- - Metabolic
- - Immune
- - Infectious
- - Unknown
- OTHER TERMINOLOGY