Hypovolemic shock in children: Initial evaluation and management
- Wendy J Pomerantz, MD, MS
Wendy J Pomerantz, MD, MS
- Co-Director, Injury Free Coalition of Greater Cincinnati
- Professor of Clinical Pediatrics
- Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
- Mark G Roback, MD
Mark G Roback, MD
- Professor, Department of Pediatrics
- University of Minnesota Medical School
- Section Editors
- Susan B Torrey, MD
Susan B Torrey, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Resuscitation; Pediatric Trauma
- Director, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics (Clinical)
- NYU School of Medicine
- Adrienne G Randolph, MD, MSc
Adrienne G Randolph, MD, MSc
- Section Editor — Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
- Professor of Anaesthesia and Pediatrics
- Harvard Medical School
- Deputy Editor
- James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH
- Senior Deputy Editor — Adult and Pediatric Emergency Medicine
- Senior Deputy Editor — Primary Care Sports Medicine (Adolescents and Adults)
- Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine/Traumatology
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine
This topic will review the evaluation and treatment of hypovolemic shock in children. A general approach to the initial evaluation and management of shock in children, evaluation and treatment of hypovolemia in children, and the pathophysiology of shock are discussed separately:
- Balamuth F, Fitzgerald J, Weiss SL. Shock. In: Fleisher & Ludwig's Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 7th ed, Shaw KN, Bachur RG. (Eds), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2016. p.55.
- World health statistics 2016. World Health Organization, WHO press, Geneva, Switzerland, 2016. http://www.who.int/gho/child_health/mortality/causes/en/ (Accessed on September 22, 2016).
- Pediatric Advanced Life Support Provider Manual, Chameides L, Samson RA, Schexnayder SM, Hazinski MF (Eds), American Heart Association, Dallas 2012.
- Weiss SL, Alexander J, Agus MS. Extreme stress hyperglycemia during acute illness in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 2010; 26:626.
- Hatherill M, Waggie Z, Purves L, et al. Mortality and the nature of metabolic acidosis in children with shock. Intensive Care Med 2003; 29:286.
- Patregnani JT, Borgman MA, Maegele M, et al. Coagulopathy and shock on admission is associated with mortality for children with traumatic injuries at combat support hospitals. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2012; 13:273.
- Park DB, Presley BC, Cook T, Hayden GE. Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Pediatric Shock. Pediatr Emerg Care 2015; 31:591.
- O'Brien AJ, Brady RM. Point-of-care ultrasound in paediatric emergency medicine. J Paediatr Child Health 2016; 52:174.
- American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma. Shock. In: Advanced Trauma Life Support Course, 9th ed, American College of Surgeons, Chicago 2012. p.62.
- Kleinman ME, Chameides L, Schexnayder SM, et al. Part 14: pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010; 122:S876.
- PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION
- Physical examination
- Ancillary data
- - Laboratory evaluation
- - Other studies
- Airway and breathing
- Control of hemorrhage
- Vascular access
- Fluid resuscitation
- Glucose abnormalities
- Ongoing management
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS