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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 41

of 'Hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome: Pathophysiology'

HMG-CoA reductase inhibition induces IL-1beta release through Rac1/PI3K/PKB-dependent caspase-1 activation.
Kuijk LM, Beekman JM, Koster J, Waterham HR, Frenkel J, Coffer PJ
Blood. 2008;112(9):3563. Epub 2008 Aug 6.
Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by recurring fever episodes and results from disturbed isoprenoid biosynthesis. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MKD patients secrete high levels of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) because of the presence of hyperactive caspase-1, and this has been proposed to be the primary cause of recurring inflammation. Here we show that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by simvastatin treatment, mimicking MKD, results in increased IL-1beta secretion in a Rac1/PI3K-dependent manner. Simvastatin treatment was found to activate protein kinase B (PKB)/c-akt, a primary effector of PI3K, and ectopic expression of constitutively active PKB was sufficient to induce IL-1beta release. The small GTPase Rac1 was activated by simvastatin, and this was required for both PKB activation and IL-1beta secretion. IL-1beta release is mediated by caspase-1, and simvastatin treatment resulted in increased caspase-1 activity in a Rac1/PI3K-dependent manner. These data suggest that, in MKD, dysregulated isoprenoid biosynthesis activates Rac1/PI3K/PKB, resulting in caspase-1 activation with increased IL-1beta release. Importantly, inhibition of Rac1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from MKD patients resulted in a dramatic reduction in IL-1beta release. These data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of Rac1 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of MKD.
Department of General Pediatrics, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.