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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 30

of 'Hyperimmunoglobulin D syndrome: Pathophysiology'

Regulation of isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthesis in cells from mevalonate kinase-deficient patients.
Houten SM, Schneiders MS, Wanders RJ, Waterham HR
J Biol Chem. 2003;278(8):5736. Epub 2002 Dec 10.
Mevalonic aciduria (MA) and hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) are two inherited disorders both caused by depressed mevalonate kinase (MK) activity. MK is the first enzyme to follow the highly regulated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. In fibroblasts of MA patients, but not of HIDS patients, HMGR activity is elevated under normal growth conditions. This activity is down-regulated when cells are supplemented with the isoprenoid precursors geraniol, farnesol, and geranylgeraniol, and a mixture of 25-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol. This indicates that the regulation of the pathway in these cells is not disturbed. The elevated HMGR activity is probably due to a shortage of non-sterol isoprenoid end products, as indicated by normal HMGR mRNA levels in MA fibroblasts. Furthermore, the HMGR activity in MA cells was more sensitive to geranylgeraniol suppression and less sensitive to sterol suppression than the HMGR activity in low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient cells. HMGR activity in MA cells was down-regulated also by addition of its product mevalonate to the culture medium. Thus, it appears that the elevation of mevalonate levels, which are high in MA patients and moderate in HIDS patients, allows the cells to compensate for the depressed MK activity. Indeed, the isoprenylation of Ras and RhoA protein appeared normal in HIDS and MA fibroblasts under normal conditions but showed increased sensitivity toward inhibition of HMGR by simvastatin. Our results indicate that MK-deficient cells maintain the flux through the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthesis pathway by elevating intracellular mevalonate levels.
Department of Pediatrics, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1100 DE, The Netherlands.