Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Disease associations, diagnosis, and treatment
- David T Scadden, MD
David T Scadden, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Andrew R Freedman, FRCP
Andrew R Freedman, FRCP
- Reader in Infectious Diseases
- Cardiff University School of Medicine
- Paul Robertson, MRCP, FRCPath
Paul Robertson, MRCP, FRCPath
- Specialist Trainee in Microbiology
- Glasgow Royal Infirmary
- Glasgow, UK
The human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects 10 to 20 million people worldwide, as estimated by seroprevalence studies. However, HTLV-I is associated with disease in only approximately 5 percent of infected individuals [1,2].
The diagnosis and treatment of HTLV-I infection and what is known about the disease associations will be reviewed here. The virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of HTLV-I are discussed separately. (See "Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology".)
The majority of HTLV-I-infected individuals will remain asymptomatic, but there are two well-recognized disease associations caused by the virus:
●Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL)
●HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP).
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- DISEASE ASSOCIATIONS
- Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma
- - Acute
- - Lymphomatous
- - Chronic
- - Smoldering
- - Markers of disease progression
- - Treatment
- HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
- - Clinical features
- - Diagnosis
- - Treatment
- - Prognosis
- Other disease manifestations
- - Other neurological abnormalities
- - Infective dermatitis
- - Uveitis
- - Rheumatologic and pulmonary disorders
- - Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)
- - Gastric cancer
- TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS