Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Disease associations, diagnosis, and treatment
- David T Scadden, MD
David T Scadden, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Andrew R Freedman, FRCP
Andrew R Freedman, FRCP
- Reader in Infectious Diseases
- Cardiff University School of Medicine
- Paul Robertson, MRCP, FRCPath
Paul Robertson, MRCP, FRCPath
- Consultant Microbiologist
- University Hospital Crosshouse, Kilmarnock
- NHS Ayrshire and Arran
The human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that infects 10 to 20 million people worldwide, as estimated by seroprevalence studies. However, HTLV-I is associated with disease in only approximately 5 percent of infected individuals [1,2].
The diagnosis and treatment of HTLV-I infection and what is known about the disease associations will be reviewed here. The virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of HTLV-I are discussed separately. (See "Human T-lymphotropic virus type I: Virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology".)
The majority of HTLV-I-infected individuals will remain asymptomatic, but there are two well-recognized disease associations caused by the virus:
●Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL)
●HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP).To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
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- DISEASE ASSOCIATIONS
- Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma
- - Acute
- - Lymphomatous
- - Chronic
- - Smoldering
- - Markers of disease progression
- - Treatment
- HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
- - Clinical features
- - Diagnosis
- - Treatment
- - Prognosis
- Other disease manifestations
- - Other neurological abnormalities
- - Infective dermatitis
- - Uveitis
- - Rheumatologic and pulmonary disorders
- - Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)
- - Gastric cancer
- ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS