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Hoarseness in adults

Jean M Bruch, DMD, MD
Dipti V Kamani, MD
Section Editor
Daniel G Deschler, MD, FACS
Deputy Editor
H Nancy Sokol, MD


"Hoarseness" is a term often used to describe any change in voice quality. This reflects a variety of complaints including vocal tremor, weakness, fatigue, altered pitch, breathiness, or strained voice quality.

The approach to the adult who presents with hoarseness will be reviewed here. The approach to hoarseness in children is discussed separately. (See "Hoarseness in children: Evaluation".)


The main functions of the larynx involve phonation, respiration, swallowing, and Valsalva:

Phonation refers to production of a primary vocal tone at the level of the vocal folds. Vocal quality is then modified by resonation through the upper airway and sinonasal tract and articulated into speech.

Airway patency and protection is important during respiration and swallowing. The normal swallow mechanism includes laryngeal elevation, posterior deflection of the epiglottis, inhibition of respiration, and closure of the vocal folds to prevent aspiration of ingested material.


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Aug 22, 2016.
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