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HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)

Christina M Wyatt, MD
Paul E Klotman, MD
Section Editor
Richard J Glassock, MD, MACP
Deputy Editor
Albert Q Lam, MD


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been associated with both acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). (See "Overview of kidney disease in HIV-positive patients".)

HIVAN, the classic kidney disease associated with HIV infection, was first described in 1984 as a complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) [1-3], although HIVAN may also occur in patients with less advanced HIV infection or acute seroconversion [4,5]. Histologically, HIVAN is a collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (picture 1), accompanied by microcystic tubular dilatation and interstitial inflammation [6].

Issues related to HIVAN will be discussed in this topic. An overview of kidney disease in patients with HIV infection and discussions of electrolyte abnormalities, dialysis, and transplantation in HIV-positive patients are provided elsewhere. (See "Overview of kidney disease in HIV-positive patients" and "Electrolyte disturbances with HIV infection" and "Human immunodeficiency virus and dialysis" and "Kidney transplantation in HIV-infected individuals".)


The pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is hypothesized to involve several factors:

Infection of kidney epithelial cells by HIV and expression of HIV genes within infected kidney cells

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Literature review current through: Oct 2017. | This topic last updated: Jun 30, 2017.
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