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Hepatitis B and pregnancy

Authors
Hannah Lee, MD
Anna SF Lok, MD
Section Editors
Rafael Esteban, MD
Louise Wilkins-Haug, MD, PhD
Deputy Editor
Jennifer Mitty, MD, MPH

INTRODUCTION

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy presents with unique management issues for both the mother and the fetus. These include the effects of HBV on maternal and fetal health, the effects of pregnancy on the course of HBV infection, treatment of HBV during pregnancy, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission is an important component of global efforts to reduce the burden of chronic HBV since vertical transmission is responsible for approximately one-half of chronic infections worldwide. The risk of developing chronic HBV infection is inversely proportional to the age at time of exposure. The risk is as high as 90 percent in those exposed at birth without vaccination, while the risk is much lower (about 20 to 30 percent) in those exposed during childhood. Maternal screening programs and universal vaccination of infants have significantly reduced transmission rates.

This topic will review special considerations for the management of patients with acute and chronic HBV infection during pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Additional topic reviews that address prevention and management of HBV infection in children, and liver disease in pregnancy, are found elsewhere:

(See "Hepatitis B virus immunization in infants, children, and adolescents".)

(See "Hepatitis viruses and the newborn: Clinical manifestations and treatment".)

                           

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Literature review current through: May 2016. | This topic last updated: Jun 17, 2016.
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