Hemorrhoids: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis
- Ronald Bleday, MD
Ronald Bleday, MD
- Associate Professor of Surgery
- Harvard Medical School
- Elizabeth Breen, MD
Elizabeth Breen, MD
- Assistant Professor of Surgery
- Harvard Medical School
The cardinal features of hemorrhoidal disease include bleeding, anal pruritus, prolapse, and pain due to thrombosis. This topic will review the anatomic classification, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of hemorrhoids. The medical and surgical management of hemorrhoids are discussed in detail, separately. (See "Home and office treatment of symptomatic hemorrhoids" and "Surgical treatment of hemorrhoidal disease".)
●Hemorrhoids are normal vascular structures in the anal canal, arising from a channel of arteriovenous connective tissues that drains into the superior and inferior hemorrhoidal veins
●External hemorrhoids are located distal to the dentate line
●Internal hemorrhoids are located proximal to the dentate line
●Mixed hemorrhoids are located both proximal and distal to the dentate line
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- CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
- Diagnostic evaluation
- - History
- - Physical examination
- - Anoscopy
- - Laboratory evaluation
- - Endoscopic evaluation
- DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
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- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS