UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2015 UpToDate®

Heel pain in the active child or skeletally immature adolescent: Overview of causes

Authors
Joseph Chorley, MD
Daren Molina, MD
Section Editors
Albert C Hergenroeder, MD
Richard G Bachur, MD
Deputy Editor
James F Wiley, II, MD, MPH

INTRODUCTION

This topic will provide an overview of the causes of heel pain in active children and skeletally immature adolescents.

The evaluation of foot and ankle pain and causes of pain in other parts of the foot and ankle in active children and skeletally immature adolescents are discussed separately as follows:

(See "Evaluation of foot and ankle pain in the child or adolescent athlete".)

(See "Clinical features and management of foot pain in the child or adolescent athlete".)

(See "Clinical features and management of ankle pain in the child or adolescent athlete".)

                         

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Jul 2015. | This topic last updated: Aug 13, 2015.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2015 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Cordoro KM, Ganz JE. Training room management of medical conditions: sports dermatology. Clin Sports Med 2005; 24:565.
  2. Knapik JJ, Reynolds KL, Duplantis KL, Jones BH. Friction blisters. Pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Sports Med 1995; 20:136.
  3. Knapik JJ, Hamlet MP, Thompson KJ, Jones BH. Influence of boot-sock systems on frequency and severity of foot blisters. Mil Med 1996; 161:594.
  4. Lipman GS, Krabak BJ. Foot problems and care. In: Wilderness Medicine, 6th edition, Auerbach PS. (Ed), Elsevier Mosby, Philadelphia 2012. p.580.
  5. Knapik JJ, Reynolds K, Barson J. Influence of an antiperspirant on foot blister incidence during cross-country hiking. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998; 39:202.
  6. Lipman GS, Scheer BV. Blisters: the enemy of the feet. Wilderness Environ Med 2015; 26:275.
  7. Sanders RW, Clare MP. Calcaneous fractures. In: Rockwood and Green's Fractures in Adults, 7th, Bucholz, RW, Heckman JD, et al. (Eds), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia 2010. p.2064.
  8. Schweitzer ME, Karasic D. The foot. In: Radiology of Skeletal Trauma, 3rd, Rogers LF. (Ed), Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia 2002. p.1319.
  9. Vasileff WK, Moutzouros V. Unrecognized pediatric partial Achilles tendon injury followed by traumatic completion: a case report and literature review. J Foot Ankle Surg 2014; 53:485.
  10. Tudisco C, Bisicchia S. Reconstruction of neglected traumatic Achilles tendon rupture in a young girl. J Orthop Traumatol 2012; 13:163.
  11. Micheli LJ, Ireland ML. Prevention and management of calcaneal apophysitis in children: an overuse syndrome. J Pediatr Orthop 1987; 7:34.
  12. Wiegerinck JI, Yntema C, Brouwer HJ, Struijs PA. Incidence of calcaneal apophysitis in the general population. Eur J Pediatr 2014; 173:677.
  13. Kose O. Do we really need radiographic assessment for the diagnosis of non-specific heel pain (calcaneal apophysitis) in children? Skeletal Radiol 2010; 39:359.
  14. Rachel JN, Williams JB, Sawyer JR, et al. Is radiographic evaluation necessary in children with a clinical diagnosis of calcaneal apophysitis (sever disease)? J Pediatr Orthop 2011; 31:548.
  15. Elengard T, Karlsson J, Silbernagel KG. Aspects of treatment for posterior heel pain in young athletes. Open Access J Sports Med 2010; 1:223.
  16. Perhamre S, Lazowska D, Papageorgiou S, et al. Sever's injury: a clinical diagnosis. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2013; 103:361.
  17. Ishikawa SN. Conditions of the calcaneus in skeletally immature patients. Foot Ankle Clin 2005; 10:503.
  18. Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo R, Losa-Iglesias ME, Rodriguez-Sanz D. Static and dynamic plantar pressures in children with and without sever disease: a case-control study. Phys Ther 2014; 94:818.
  19. Micheli LJ, Fehlandt AF Jr. Overuse injuries to tendons and apophyses in children and adolescents. Clin Sports Med 1992; 11:713.
  20. Ogden JA, Ganey TM, Hill JD, Jaakkola JI. Sever's injury: a stress fracture of the immature calcaneal metaphysis. J Pediatr Orthop 2004; 24:488.
  21. Perhamre S, Lundin F, Norlin R, Klässbo M. Sever's injury; treat it with a heel cup: a randomized, crossover study with two insole alternatives. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2011; 21:e42.
  22. Wiegerinck JI, Zwiers R, Sierevelt IN, et al. Treatment of Calcaneal Apophysitis: Wait and See Versus Orthotic Device Versus Physical Therapy: A Pragmatic Therapeutic Randomized Clinical Trial. J Pediatr Orthop 2015.
  23. James AM, Williams CM, Haines TP. "Effectiveness of interventions in reducing pain and maintaining physical activity in children and adolescents with calcaneal apophysitis (Sever's disease): a systematic review". J Foot Ankle Res 2013; 6:16.
  24. Scharfbillig RW, Jones S, Scutter SD. Sever's disease: what does the literature really tell us? J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2008; 98:212.
  25. Perhamre S, Janson S, Norlin R, Klässbo M. Sever's injury: treatment with insoles provides effective pain relief. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2011; 21:819.
  26. Walling AK, Grogan DP, Carty CT, Ogden JA. Fractures of the calcaneal apophysis. J Orthop Trauma 1990; 4:349.
  27. Oestreich AE, Bhojwani N. Stress fractures of ankle and wrist in childhood: nature and frequency. Pediatr Radiol 2010; 40:1387.
  28. Niva MH, Sormaala MJ, Kiuru MJ, et al. Bone stress injuries of the ankle and foot: an 86-month magnetic resonance imaging-based study of physically active young adults. Am J Sports Med 2007; 35:643.
  29. Harty MP. Imaging of pediatric foot disorders. Radiol Clin North Am 2001; 39:733.
  30. Schönberg-Norio D, Mattila L, Lauhio A, et al. Patient-reported complications associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection. Epidemiol Infect 2010; 138:1004.
  31. Hannu T, Mattila L, Nuorti JP, et al. Reactive arthritis after an outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 infection. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62:866.
  32. Jacobs JC, Berdon WE, Johnston AD. HLA-B27-associated spondyloarthritis and enthesopathy in childhood: clinical, pathologic, and radiographic observations in 58 patients. J Pediatr 1982; 100:521.