Grain allergy: Allergens and grain classification
- Kirsi M Jarvinen-Seppo, MD, PhD
Kirsi M Jarvinen-Seppo, MD, PhD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine
- University of Rochester School of Medicine
Grain allergies are common food allergies that are typically, but not only, seen in individuals with other food allergies. The immunologic responses to grain proteins can be immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated and/or non-IgE mediated. This topic review highlights wheat and also covers other cereal grains including rye, barley, oat, rice, corn, and millet, as well as non-cereal grains including quinoa, amaranth, buckwheat, and sorghum.
An overview of grains, grain taxonomy, and grain allergens are presented in this topic review. The epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of grain allergies are discussed in detail separately. (See "Grain allergy: Clinical features, diagnosis, and management".)
General discussions of food allergy are presented separately in other topic reviews.
Wheat allergy related to occupational exposure is presented separately, as is food-dependent (including wheat) exercise-induced anaphylaxis and celiac disease (gluten-sensitive enteropathy):
●(See "Occupational asthma: Definitions, epidemiology, causes, and risk factors" and "Occupational asthma: Pathogenesis" and "Occupational asthma: Clinical features and diagnosis" and "Occupational asthma: Management, prognosis, and prevention".)
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- OVERVIEW OF GRAINS
- Grain use worldwide
- GRAIN ALLERGENS
- Cereal grains
- - Wheat
- - Barley, rye
- - Oat
- - Corn (maize)
- - Rice
- - Millet
- - Sorghum
- Allergenic similarities between cereal grains
- Allergenic similarities to grasses
- Non-cereal grains
- - Buckwheat
- - Quinoa
- - Amaranth