Goal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular disease or at high risk
- George L Bakris, MD
George L Bakris, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Nephrology
- Section Editor — Hypertension
- Professor of Medicine
- The University of Chicago
- William B White, MD, FASH, FAHA, FACP
William B White, MD, FASH, FAHA, FACP
- Professor of Medicine
- Chief, Division of Hypertension and Clinical Pharmacology
- Calhoun Cardiology Center
- University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT
- Past President, American Society of Hypertension 2012-2014
- Editor-in-Chief, Blood Pressure Monitoring
- Section Editors
- Juan Carlos Kaski, DSc, MD, DM (Hons), FRCP, FESC, FACC, FAHA
Juan Carlos Kaski, DSc, MD, DM (Hons), FRCP, FESC, FACC, FAHA
- Section Editor — Coronary Heart Disease
- Professor of Cardiovascular Science
- Director, Cardiovascular and Cell Sciences Research Institute
- St. George's, University of London
- Norman M Kaplan, MD
Norman M Kaplan, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Nephrology
- Section Editor — Hypertension
- Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine
- University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Hypertension is the most prevalent major risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), being more common than cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, and diabetes . (See "Cardiovascular risks of hypertension" and "Overview of the risk equivalents and established risk factors for cardiovascular disease".)
Regarding the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and outcomes in patients with or at risk of CVD:
●The risk of the development of a cardiovascular event such as myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death is directly related to the level of BP.
●The excess risk of a future cardiovascular event attributable to hypertension is greater in individuals with established CVD, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney disease compared to those at lower risk.
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- METHOD OF BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
- EVIDENCE OF BENEFIT
- Studies comparing blood pressure goals
- Placebo-controlled trials
- - Trials demonstrating benefit
- - Trials showing no benefit
- - Meta-analyses
- ARE LOWER BLOOD PRESSURES HARMFUL?
- Coronary heart disease without heart failure
- Heart failure
- Isolated systolic hypertension
- Prior stroke
- GOAL BLOOD PRESSURE
- Patients with CVD
- - Patients with acute coronary syndromes
- - Stroke as an outcome of interest
- Patients with risk factors for CVD
- RECOMMENDATIONS OF OTHERS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS