General anesthesia: Induction
- Adam King, MD
Adam King, MD
- Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
- Vanderbilt University Medical Center
- Liza M Weavind, MBBCh, FCCM, MMHC
Liza M Weavind, MBBCh, FCCM, MMHC
- Professor of Anesthesiology and Surgery
- Vanderbilt University Medical Center
General anesthesia establishes a reversible state that includes:
- American Society of Anesthesiologists. Standards for Basic Anesthetic Monitoring. www.asahq.org/Search.aspx?q=standards+basic+anesthetic+monitoring (Accessed on March 29, 2016).
- Kobayashi M, Ayuse T, Hoshino Y, et al. Effect of head elevation on passive upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects during propofol anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2011; 115:273.
- Tanoubi I, Drolet P, Donati F. Optimizing preoxygenation in adults. Can J Anaesth 2009; 56:449.
- Nimmagadda U, Salem MR, Crystal GJ. Preoxygenation: Physiologic Basis, Benefits, and Potential Risks. Anesth Analg 2017; 124:507.
- Smith C, McEwan AI, Jhaveri R, et al. The interaction of fentanyl on the Cp50 of propofol for loss of consciousness and skin incision. Anesthesiology 1994; 81:820.
- Kazama T, Ikeda K, Morita K. The pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and fentanyl with respect to the suppression of somatic or hemodynamic responses to skin incision, peritoneum incision, and abdominal wall retraction. Anesthesiology 1998; 89:894.
- Short TG, Plummer JL, Chui PT. Hypnotic and anaesthetic interactions between midazolam, propofol and alfentanil. Br J Anaesth 1992; 69:162.
- Kazama T, Ikeda K, Morita K. Reduction by fentanyl of the Cp50 values of propofol and hemodynamic responses to various noxious stimuli. Anesthesiology 1997; 87:213.
- Van Aken H, Meinshausen E, Prien T, et al. The influence of fentanyl and tracheal intubation on the hemodynamic effects of anesthesia induction with propofol/N2O in humans. Anesthesiology 1988; 68:157.
- Maurice-Szamburski A, Auquier P, Viarre-Oreal V, et al. Effect of sedative premedication on patient experience after general anesthesia: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2015; 313:916.
- Feldheiser A, Aziz O, Baldini G, et al. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) for gastrointestinal surgery, part 2: consensus statement for anaesthesia practice. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2016; 60:289.
- Aouad MT, Sayyid SS, Zalaket MI, Baraka AS. Intravenous lidocaine as adjuvant to sevoflurane anesthesia for endotracheal intubation in children. Anesth Analg 2003; 96:1325.
- Warner LO, Balch DR, Davidson PJ. Is intravenous lidocaine an effective adjuvant for endotracheal intubation in children undergoing induction of anesthesia with halothane-nitrous oxide? J Clin Anesth 1997; 9:270.
- Davidson JA, Gillespie JA. Tracheal intubation after induction of anaesthesia with propofol, alfentanil and i.v. lignocaine. Br J Anaesth 1993; 70:163.
- STEINHAUS JE, GASKIN L. A study of intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of cough reflex. Anesthesiology 1963; 24:285.
- Pandey CK, Raza M, Ranjan R, et al. Intravenous lidocaine 0.5 mg.kg-1 effectively suppresses fentanyl-induced cough. Can J Anaesth 2005; 52:172.
- Nishino T, Hiraga K, Sugimori K. Effects of i.v. lignocaine on airway reflexes elicited by irritation of the tracheal mucosa in humans anaesthetized with enflurane. Br J Anaesth 1990; 64:682.
- Lin CS, Sun WZ, Chan WH, et al. Intravenous lidocaine and ephedrine, but not propofol, suppress fentanyl-induced cough. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51:654.
- Maslow AD, Regan MM, Israel E, et al. Inhaled albuterol, but not intravenous lidocaine, protects against intubation-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma. Anesthesiology 2000; 93:1198.
- Pandey CK, Raza M, Ranjan R, et al. Intravenous lidocaine suppresses fentanyl-induced coughing: a double-blind, prospective, randomized placebo-controlled study. Anesth Analg 2004; 99:1696.
- Yukioka H, Hayashi M, Terai T, Fujimori M. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation in elderly patients. Anesth Analg 1993; 77:309.
- Jakobsen CJ, Ahlburg P, Holdgård HO, et al. Comparison of intravenous and topical lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing after bronchoscopy during general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991; 35:238.
- Adamzik M, Groeben H, Farahani R, et al. Intravenous lidocaine after tracheal intubation mitigates bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Anesth Analg 2007; 104:168.
- Chang HY, Togias A, Brown RH. The effects of systemic lidocaine on airway tone and pulmonary function in asthmatic subjects. Anesth Analg 2007; 104:1109.
- Senturk M, Pembeci K, Menda F, et al. Effects of intramuscular administration of lidocaine or bupivacaine on induction and maintenance doses of propofol evaluated by bispectral index. Br J Anaesth 2002; 89:849.
- Euasobhon P, Dej-Arkom S, Siriussawakul A, et al. Lidocaine for reducing propofol-induced pain on induction of anaesthesia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 2:CD007874.
- Picard P, Tramèr MR. Prevention of pain on injection with propofol: a quantitative systematic review. Anesth Analg 2000; 90:963.
- El-Radaideh KM. [Effect of pretreatment with lidocaine, intravenous paracetamol and lidocaine-fentanyl on propofol injection pain. Comparative study. Rev Bras Anestesiol 2007; 57:32.
- Prabhakar H, Singh GP, Ali Z, et al. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for reducing rocuronium bromide induced pain on injection in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 2:CD009346.
- Aouad MT, Siddik-Sayyid SM, Al-Alami AA, Baraka AS. Multimodal analgesia to prevent propofol-induced pain: pretreatment with remifentanil and lidocaine versus remifentanil or lidocaine alone. Anesth Analg 2007; 104:1540.
- Rahman Al-Refai A, Al-Mujadi H, Petrova Ivanova M, et al. Prevention of pain on injection of propofol: a comparison of remifentanil with alfentanil in children. Minerva Anestesiol 2007; 73:219.
- Sigston PE, Jenkins AM, Jackson EA, et al. Rapid inhalation induction in children: 8% sevoflurane compared with 5% halothane. Br J Anaesth 1997; 78:362.
- Thwaites A, Edmends S, Smith I. Inhalation induction with sevoflurane: a double-blind comparison with propofol. Br J Anaesth 1997; 78:356.
- Joshi GP. Inhalational techniques in ambulatory anesthesia. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2003; 21:263.
- Suzuki KS, Oohata M, Mori N. Multiple-deep-breath inhalation induction with 5% sevoflurane and 67% nitrous oxide: comparison with intravenous injection of propofol. J Anesth 2002; 16:97.
- Lejus C, Bazin V, Fernandez M, et al. Inhalation induction using sevoflurane in children: the single-breath vital capacity technique compared to the tidal volume technique*. Anaesthesia 2006; 61:535.
- Joo HS, Perks WJ. Sevoflurane versus propofol for anesthetic induction: a meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 2000; 91:213.
- Boonmak P, Boonmak S, Pattanittum P. High initial concentration versus low initial concentration sevoflurane for inhalational induction of anaesthesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; :CD006837.
- White PF, Tang J, Wender RH, et al. Desflurane versus sevoflurane for maintenance of outpatient anesthesia: the effect on early versus late recovery and perioperative coughing. Anesth Analg 2009; 109:387.
- Mostafa SM, Atherton AM. Sevoflurane for difficult tracheal intubation. Br J Anaesth 1997; 79:392.
- Thomas Ebert and Larry Lindenbaum. Inhaled Anesthetics. In: Clinical Anesthesia, Seventh, Paul G. Barash (Ed), Lippincott Williams Wilkins, Philadelphia 2013. p.447-477.
- de Oliveira GS Jr, Girao W, Fitzgerald PC, McCarthy RJ. The effect of sevoflurane versus desflurane on the incidence of upper respiratory morbidity in patients undergoing general anesthesia with a Laryngeal Mask Airway: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Anesth 2013; 25:452.
- Torri G. Inhalation anesthetics: a review. Minerva Anestesiol 2010; 76:215.
- Sun R, Jia WQ, Zhang P, et al. Nitrous oxide-based techniques versus nitrous oxide-free techniques for general anaesthesia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; :CD008984.
- Myles PS, Chan MT, Kasza J, et al. Severe Nausea and Vomiting in the Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anesthesia II Trial. Anesthesiology 2016; 124:1032.
- de Boer HD, Driessen JJ, Marcus MA, et al. Reversal of rocuronium-induced (1.2 mg/kg) profound neuromuscular block by sugammadex: a multicenter, dose-finding and safety study. Anesthesiology 2007; 107:239.
- Pühringer FK, Rex C, Sielenkämper AW, et al. Reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex at two different time points: an international, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding, safety assessor-blinded, phase II trial. Anesthesiology 2008; 109:188.
- CONTINUUM OF SEDATION DURING ANESTHETIC INDUCTION
- PREPARATION FOR ANESTHETIC INDUCTION
- Preparation before patient arrival
- Preparation after patient arrival
- Preparation immediately before induction
- SELECTION OF INDUCTION TECHNIQUE
- INTRAVENOUS ANESTHETIC INDUCTION
- Induction with endotracheal intubation
- Induction with supraglottic airway placement
- INHALATION ANESTHETIC INDUCTION
- Volatile inhalation agents
- Nitrous oxide gas
- NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS
- VASOPRESSOR AGENTS
- PATIENT-SPECIFIC AND PROCEDURE-SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS