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Medline ® Abstracts for References 9,11,30-32,43-50

of 'Fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity: Incidence, clinical manifestations, mechanisms, and management'

9
TI
Cardiotoxicity of high-dose continuous infusion fluorouracil: a prospective clinical study.
AU
de Forni M, Malet-Martino MC, Jaillais P, Shubinski RE, Bachaud JM, Lemaire L, Canal P, Chevreau C, CarriéD, SouliéP
SO
J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(11):1795.
 
PURPOSE: A prospective clinical study was performed to determine the incidence of high-dose continuous intravenous infusion fluorouracil (5FU-CIV) cardiotoxicity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred sixty-seven patients who were given first-cycle high-dose 5FU-CIV were monitored for cardiac function by clinical examination, ECG, and laboratory tests. 5FU-CIV was administered during a 96- or 120-hour period at doses that ranged from 600 to 1,000 mg/m2/d. Associated drugs included cisplatin (56%), mitomycin (12.5%), folinic acid (leucovorin) (7%), and others (14%). Thirty-nine patients (10.5%) received 5FU as a single agent.
RESULTS: 5FU-induced cardiac events occurred in 28 patients (7.6%; 95% confidence interval, 4.9% to 10.3%). Nine of them had a history of cardiac disease. Primary tumors included head and neck (n = 13), gastrointestinal (n = 6), breast (n = 3), and others (n = 6). The mean onset time of cardiac symptoms was 3 days (range, 2 to 5). Inaugural symptoms included angina pectoris (n = 18), hypotension (n = 6), hypertension (n = 5), malaise (n = 4), dyspnea (n = 2),arrhythmia (n = 1), or sudden death (n = 1). At 5FU discontinuation, six patients' cardiac symptoms returned to baseline, but 21 patients experienced unstable angina (n = 8), hypotension/cardiovascular collapse (n = 11), pulmonary edema (n = 1), or sudden death (n = 4). The lethality rate was 2.2% (five sudden deaths plus three irreversible collapses). ECG showed repolarization changes (ST segment deviation; T-wave inversion) in 65% and/or diffuse microvoltage in 22% of the patients who presented with cardiac events. Echocardiography showed partial or global hypokinesia in nine of the 16 patients who were examined, and one case of prolonged akinesia. Cardiac enzymes rarely showed an increase (n = 2). In severe but reversible cases, clinical, ECG, and echographic parameters returned to baseline status within 48 hours after the drug discontinuation. A fluorine 19 nuclear magnetic resonance (19F NMR) analysis of urine was performed on 14 patients; six had cardiac symptoms and eight did not. Fluoroacetate (FAC), a known cardiotoxic compound, was detected in all cases.
CONCLUSION: In our study, the incidence of high-dose 5FU-CVI cardiotoxicity was 7.6%. The hypothesis of a toxic cardiomyopathic process requires further confirmation.
AD
Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse, France.
PMID
11
TI
Fluorouracil induces myocardial ischemia with increases of plasma brain natriuretic peptide and lactic acid but without dysfunction of left ventricle.
AU
Jensen SA, Hasbak P, Mortensen J, Sørensen JB
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(36):5280. Epub 2010 Nov 15.
 
PURPOSE: Fluorouracil (FU) is a cornerstone of colorectal cancer treatment; however, it has clinical and subclinical influence on the heart. This study aimed to clarify the pathophysiology, risk factors, and long-term effects of FU cardiotoxicity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study prospectively accrued colorectal cancer patients (n=106) completely resected and adjuvantly treated with FU and oxaliplatin according to the FOLFOX4 regimen (infusional FU, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin). Serial measurements were made of systolic and diastolic features of the left ventricle by radionuclide ventriculography, plasma levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), lactic acid, and ECG before chemotherapy, immediately after a treatment infusion, and at follow-up 2 weeks after cessation of the intended 12 treatment courses and were further evaluated by multivariate regression analysis that included cardiovascular history and its risk factors.
RESULTS: In the entire cohort, NT-proBNP significantly increased from baseline 14.5±3.2 pmol/L (mean±standard error) to 28.3±5.3 pmol/L during FU therapy (P<.001). Nine patients (8.5%) with cardiotoxicity had significantly higher NT-proBNP of 55.3±40.8 pmol/L compared with 25.4±4.1 pmol/L in those without (P<.001). In multivariate analysis, the FU-induced rise of NT-proBNP was significantly higher in females (P<.001). Plasma lactic acid significantly increased from baseline (1.3±0.1 mmol/L to 1.8±0.1 mmol/L) during FU therapy (P<.001). Left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline of 0.66±0.01 remained unchanged at 0.65±0.01 during FU therapy and 0.66±0.01 at follow-up (P=.4).
CONCLUSION: FU therapy generally induces myocardial neuroendocrine changes with increasing plasma NT-proBNP and lactic acid but without long-term dysfunction of the left ventricle. The usability of NT-proBNP as a predictive marker for FU cardiotoxicity remains to be clarified.
AD
Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, and Department of Oncology 5073, University of Copenhagen, 9 Blegdamsvej, Copenhagen, DK-2100, Denmark. soren.a.jensen@mail.tele.dk
PMID
30
TI
The frequency and pattern of cardiotoxicity observed with capecitabine used in conjunction with oxaliplatin in patients treated for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC).
AU
Ng M, Cunningham D, Norman AR
SO
Eur J Cancer. 2005;41(11):1542.
 
We examined the cardiotoxicity in 153 patients treated with capecitabine and oxaliplatin in two prospective trials for advanced colorectal cancer. Ten patients (6.5%) developed cardiac events. One patient (0.7%) had sudden death, one patient developed cardiac failure with raised troponin I while another developed ventricular tachycardia (VT). The remaining seven patients (4.6%) experienced angina and three of the seven patients had raised troponin I, one of which developed ventricular fibrillation. Eight events occurred within cycle 1 (median cycle 1 day 10). Four patients with angina and one patient with VT recovered on stopping capecitabine, four patients required additional medical management and the remaining patient died suddenly at home. Patients with ischaemic heart disease appeared to be at increased risk. Physicians and patients need to be aware of these complications, so that prompt discontinuation of treatment and appropriate interventions may be instituted.
AD
Department of Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, UK.
PMID
31
TI
Incidence of cardiotoxicity with the oral fluoropyrimidine capecitabine is typical of that reported with 5-fluorouracil.
AU
Van Cutsem E, Hoff PM, Blum JL, Abt M, Osterwalder B
SO
Ann Oncol. 2002;13(3):484.
 
AD
PMID
32
TI
Capecitabine-related cardiotoxicity: recognition and management.
AU
Saif MW, Tomita M, Ledbetter L, Diasio RB
SO
J Support Oncol. 2008;6(1):41.
 
AD
Yale University School of Medicine, Section of Medical Oncology, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. wasif.saif@yale.edu
PMID
43
TI
The syndrome of 5-fluorouracil cardiotoxicity. An elusive cardiopathy.
AU
Robben NC, Pippas AW, Moore JO
SO
Cancer. 1993;71(2):493.
 
BACKGROUND: A case of reversible cardiogenic shock linked to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was observed. Recognizing the increasing use of 5-FU, the authors tried to map this syndrome.
METHODS: They reviewed 134 additional case reports, retrieved information from literature searches, focused on clinical features, and discussed possible pathophysiologic findings and prevention of this syndrome.
RESULTS: Although angina and electrocardiographic changes were common and reproducible (approximately 90% each), coronary artery disease was found in a few patients. A total of 33 patients had severe left ventricular dysfunction, 28 without evidence of myocardial infarction. The symptoms were responsive to conservative management (90%).
CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac toxicity is a little known complication of 5-FU therapy, with an unknown but significant incidence. It is highly treatable.
AD
Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.
PMID
44
TI
Failure of preventing 5-fluorouracil cardiotoxicity by prophylactic treatment with verapamil.
AU
Eskilsson J, Albertsson M
SO
Acta Oncol. 1990;29(8):1001.
 
The most common cardiotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are chest pain and ischemic ECG abnormalities. Coronary vasospasm may be the underlying mechanism. If so, prophylactic treatment with calcium channel blockers might have a beneficial effect. In the present study, prophylaxis with verapamil (120 mg three times daily) was given to 58 patients with esophageal or advanced head and neck carcinoma during induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and continuous infusion with 5-FU. Signs of ischemia appeared in 12% of the patients as compared to 13% in a previously studied compatible group of patients not receiving prophylaxis. The study does not support the hypothesis that prophylactic treatment with verapamil reduces the incidence of ischemia in patients undergoing 5-FU treatment. Verapamil might, however, modify the adverse cardiac effects of 5-FU by preventing supraventricular tachyarrhythmia.
AD
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
PMID
45
TI
Cardiotoxicity of the antiproliferative compound fluorouracil.
AU
Becker K, Erckenbrecht JF, Häussinger D, Frieling T
SO
Drugs. 1999 Apr;57(4):475-84.
 
The antimetabolite fluorouracil (5-FU) is frequently administered for chemotherapy of various malignant neoplasms. The drug is well known for its adverse effects involving bone marrow, skin, mucous membranes, intestinal tract and central nervous system, whereas its cardiotoxicity is less familiar to clinicians. The pathophysiology of fluorouracil-associated cardiac adverse events is controversial and conclusions are based on clinical studies and case reports more than on solid experimental evidence. While clinical and electrocardiographic features suggest myocardial ischaemia as a main aetiological factor, possibly induced by coronary vasospasm, histomorphological and biochemical studies indicate a more direct drug-mediated cytotoxic action. Estimates of the overall incidence of fluorouracil cardiotoxicity have varied widely from 1.2 to 18% of patients. Patients may present with angina-like chest pain, cardiac arrhythmias or myocardial infarction. There is no unequivocally effective prophylaxis or treatment in this syndrome. Once fluorouracil administration is discontinued symptoms are usually reversible, although fatal events have been described. The overall mortality rate has been estimated to be between 2.2 and 13.3%. There is a high risk of relapse when patients are re-exposed to this drug following previous cardiac incidents. From the present data it is concluded that cardiotoxicity is a relevant but underestimated problem in fluorouracil treatment. Since the mechanisms of fluorouracil-associated cardiotoxicity are not yet fully understood, all patients undergoing this chemotherapy have to be carefully evaluated and monitored for cardiac risk factors and complaints. After cardiotoxic events, fluorouracil should definitely be withdrawn and replaced by an alternative antiproliferative regimen.
AD
Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Hospital Florence Nightingale, Diakoniewerk Kaiserswerth, Düsseldorf, Germany.
PMID
46
TI
Capecitabine, an oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate with substantial activity in advanced colorectal cancer: results of a randomized phase II study.
AU
Van Cutsem E, Findlay M, Osterwalder B, Kocha W, Dalley D, Pazdur R, Cassidy J, Dirix L, Twelves C, Allman D, Seitz JF, Schölmerich J, Burger HU, Verweij J
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(6):1337.
 
PURPOSE: To evaluate in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) three treatment regimens of oral capecitabine in order to select the most appropriate regimen for testing in phase III.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three capecitabine schedules were evaluated in a randomized phase II design: arm A, 1,331 mg/m(2)/d bid continuously; arm B, 2,510 mg/m(2)/d bid intermittently (2 weeks on/1 week off); and arm C, 1,657 mg/m(2)/d plus oral leucovorin 60 mg/d bid intermittently (2 weeks on/1 week off).
RESULTS: One hundred nine patients were randomized; 39 patients were assessable for efficacy in arm A, 34 in arm B, and 35 in arm C. Patient characteristics were balanced in the arms. Confirmed tumor responses (partial response [PR]+ complete response [CR]) were reported for eight patients with two CRs (21%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 36%) in arm A, eight patients with one CR (24%; 95% CI, 11% to 41%) in arm B, and eight patients with two CRs (23%; 95%CI, 10% to 40%) in arm C. Median times to progression (TTP) in arms A, B, and C were 127, 230, and 165 days, respectively. Overall, more toxicity was seen with capecitabine plus leucovorin, particularly diarrhea and hand-foot syndrome. There was no grade 3 or 4 marrow toxicity.
CONCLUSION: Capecitabine offers a new, effective treatment option as an oral single agent in advanced CRC. Promising overall response rates were reported for all three regimens. The addition of leucovorin to the intermittent regimen had no marked effect on tumor response or median TTP. The intermittent single-agent capecitabine schedule is proposed for phase III evaluation, based on considerations of toxicity, dose-intensity, response rate, and TTP.
AD
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. Eric.VanCutsem@uz.kuleuven.ac.be
PMID
47
TI
Oral capecitabine compared with intravenous fluorouracil plus leucovorin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: results of a large phase III study.
AU
Van Cutsem E, Twelves C, Cassidy J, Allman D, Bajetta E, Boyer M, Bugat R, Findlay M, Frings S, Jahn M, McKendrick J, Osterwalder B, Perez-Manga G, Rosso R, Rougier P, Schmiegel WH, Seitz JF, Thompson P, Vieitez JM, Weitzel C, Harper P, Xeloda Colorectal Cancer Study Group
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(21):4097.
 
PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and safety of orally administered capecitabine (Xeloda; Roche Laboratories, Inc, Nutley, NJ), a novel fluoropyrimidine carbamate designed to mimic continuous fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion but with preferential activation at the tumor site, with that of intravenous (IV) 5-FU plus leucovorin (5-FU/LV) as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively randomized 602 patients to treatment with capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) administered twice daily days 1 to 14 every 3 weeks, or to the 4-weekly Mayo Clinic regimen (5-FU/LV) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
RESULTS: The primary objective, to demonstrate at least equivalent response rates in the two treatment groups, was met. The overall response rate was 18.9% for capecitabine and 15.0% for 5-FU/LV. In the capecitabine and 5-FU/LV groups, respectively, median time to disease progression was 5.2 and 4.7 months (log-rank P =.65); median time to treatment failure was 4.2 and 4.0 months (log-rank P =.89); and median overall survival was 13.2 and 12.1 months (log-rank P =.33). The toxicity profiles of both treatments were typical of fluoropyrimidines. However, capecitabine led to significantly lower incidences (P<.00001) of stomatitis and alopecia, but a higher incidence of cutaneous hand-foot syndrome (P<.00001). Capecitabine also resulted in lower incidences (P<.00001) of grade 3/4 stomatitis and neutropenia, leading to a lower incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenic fever and sepsis. Only grade 3 hand-foot syndrome (P<.00001) and uncomplicated grade 3/4 hyperbilirubinemia (P<.0001) were reported more frequently with capecitabine.
CONCLUSION: Oral capecitabine achieved an at least equivalent efficacy compared with IV 5-FU/LV. Capecitabine demonstrated clinically meaningful safety advantages and the convenience of an oral agent.
AD
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. eric.vancutsem@uz.kuleuven.ac.be
PMID
48
TI
Treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma with oxaliplatin and capecitabine: a phase II trial.
AU
Shields AF, Zalupski MM, Marshall JL, Meropol NJ
SO
Cancer. 2004;100(3):531.
 
BACKGROUND: The current study was designed to evaluate the antitumor activity and toxicity of capecitabine and oxaliplatin in previously untreated patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. The primary endpoint of the study was to determine the objective response rate, and a secondary endpoint was to measure the time to disease progression.
METHODS: A 2-stage trial was planned with an accrual goal of 35 patients. The treatment included oxaliplatin given at a dose of 130 mg/m2 on Day 1 of each 3-week cycle. Initially, capecitabine at a dose of 2000 mg/m2/day in 2 divided doses was given on Days 1-14 of each cycle, but this was reduced to a dose of 1500 mg/m2/day because of toxicity. Patients were followed by computed tomography scans every two cycles to evaluate treatment response, and toxicity was monitored.
RESULTS: The first 13 patients on the trial received the higher dose of capecitabine. Although 5 responses (38.5%) were noted, 5 patients were hospitalized with diarrhea and dehydration. This toxicity led to a decrease in the dose of capecitabine to 1500 mg/m2/day and an additional 35 patients weretreated. At the lower dose, the partial response rate was 37.1% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 21.5-55.1%). The estimated median progression-free survival was 6.9 months (95% CI, 4.4-8.2 months). At the lower dose, four patients were hospitalized with diarrhea/dehydration (with one death reported), one with febrile neutropenia, and one with ventricular fibrillation. Overall, Grade (according to version 2.0 of the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) 3-4 diarrhea was reported to develop in 20% of those patients treated at the capecitabine dose of 1500 mg/m2/day compared with 62% of patients treated at the dose of 2000 mg/m2/day.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of oxaliplatin and capecitabine is an active and convenient regimen for the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma and should be compared with other front-line regimens as therapy for disease.
AD
Department of Medicine, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA. shieldsa@karmanos.org
PMID
49
TI
Randomized multicenter Phase II trial of two different schedules of irinotecan combined with capecitabine as first-line treatment in metastatic colorectal carcinoma.
AU
Bajetta E, Di Bartolomeo M, Mariani L, Cassata A, Artale S, Frustaci S, Pinotti G, Bonetti A, Carreca I, Biasco G, Bonaglia L, Marini G, Iannelli A, Cortinovis D, Ferrario E, Beretta E, Lambiase A, Buzzoni R, Italian Trials in Medical Oncology (I.T.M.O.) Group
SO
Cancer. 2004;100(2):279.
 
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current randomized Phase II study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of capecitabine combined with irinotecan as first-line treatment in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC).
METHODS: A total of 140 patients received capecitabine at a dose of 1250 mg/m(2) twice daily on Days 2-15 and irinotecan at a dose of either 300 mg/m(2) on Day 1 (Arm A) or 150 mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 8 (Arm B) every 3 weeks. During the course of the study, enrollment was continued using lower doses of capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2) twice daily) and irinotecan (Arm A: 240 mg/m(2); Arm B: 120 mg/m(2)) to improve the safety profile of the combinations.
RESULTS: Efficacy was evaluable in 134 patients (68 in Arm A, 66 in Arm B). Objective responses were observed in 46% of the patients (8% complete response [CR]), including 47% in Arm A (9% CR; 38% partial response [PR]) and 44% in Arm B (8% CR; 36% PR). The median progression-free survival was 8.3 months in Arm A and 7.6 months in Arm B. Among the first 52 patients treated with the higher doses, the most frequent Grade 3-4 adverse event was diarrhea (27%). The lower doses adopted in the subsequent 88 patients led to better diarrhea control, particularly in Arm A, and significant reductions in the incidence of all-grade hand-foot syndrome and abdominal pain.
CONCLUSIONS: The capecitabine and irinotecan combination was a highly active first-line therapy in metastatic CRC. An acceptable safety profile was observed after dose reduction, particularly when irinotecan was administered on 1 day.
AD
Medical Oncology Unit B, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via G. Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy. emilio.bajetta@istitutotumori.mi.it
PMID
50
TI
Comparison of oral capecitabine versus intravenous fluorouracil plus leucovorin as first-line treatment in 605 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: results of a randomized phase III study.
AU
Hoff PM, Ansari R, Batist G, Cox J, Kocha W, Kuperminc M, Maroun J, Walde D, Weaver C, Harrison E, Burger HU, Osterwalder B, Wong AO, Wong R
SO
J Clin Oncol. 2001;19(8):2282.
 
PURPOSE: To compare the response rate, efficacy parameters, and toxicity profile of oral capecitabine with bolus intravenous (IV) fluorouracil plus leucovorin (5-FU/LV) as first-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively randomized 605 patients to treatment with oral capecitabine for 14 days every 3 weeks or 5-FU/LV by rapid IV injection daily for 5 days in 4-week cycles.
RESULTS: The overall objective tumor response rate among all randomized patients was significantly higher in the capecitabine group (24.8%) than in the 5-FU/LV group (15.5%; P =.005). In the capecitabine and 5-FU/LV groups, median times to disease progression were 4.3 and 4.7 months (log-rank P =.72), median times to treatment failure were 4.1 and 3.1 months (P =.19), and median overall survival times were 12.5 and 13.3 months (P =.974), respectively. Capecitabine, compared with bolus 5-FU/LV treatment, produced a significantly lower incidence (P<.0002) of diarrhea, stomatitis, nausea, and alopecia. Patients treated with capecitabine also displayed lower incidences of grade 3/4 stomatitis and grade 3/4 neutropenia (P<.0001) leading to significantly less neutropenic fever/sepsis. Grade 3 hand-foot syndrome (P<.00001) and grade 3/4 hyperbilirubinemia were the only toxicities more frequently associated with capecitabine than with 5-FU/LV treatment.
CONCLUSION: Oral capecitabine was more active than 5-FU/LV in the induction of objective tumor responses. Time to disease progression and survival were at least equivalent for capecitabine compared with the 5-FU/LV arm. Capecitabine also demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits over bolus 5-FU/LV in terms of tolerability.
AD
University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030-4009, USA. phoff@mdanderson.org
PMID