Medline ® Abstracts for References 78,79
of 'Fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity: Incidence, clinical manifestations, mechanisms, and management'
5-Fluorouracil cardiotoxicity induced by alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine.
Muneoka K, Shirai Y, Yokoyama N, Wakai T, Hatakeyama K
Int J Clin Oncol. 2005 Dec;10(6):441-3.
Cardiotoxicity is a rare complication occurring during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment for malignancies. We herein report the case of a 70-year-old man with 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity, in whom a high serum level of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL) was observed. The patient, who had unresectable colon cancer metastases to the liver and lung, was referred to us for chemotherapy from an affiliated hospital; he had no cardiac history. After admission, the patient received a continuous intravenous infusion of 5-FU (1000 mg/day), during which precordial pain with right bundle branch block occurred concomitantly with a high serum FBAL concentration of 1955 ng/ml. Both the precordial pain and the electrocardiographic changes disappeared spontaneously after the discontinuation of 5-FU. As the precordial pain in this patient was considered to have been due to 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity, the administration of 5-FU was abandoned. Instead, oral administration of S-1 (a derivative of 5-FU), at 200 mg/day twice a week, was instituted, because S-1 has a strong inhibitory effect on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the degradative of 5-FU into FBAL. The serum FBAL concentration subsequently decreased to 352 ng/ml, the same as the value measured on the first day of S-1 administration. Thereafter, no cardiac symptoms were observed. The patient achieved a partial response 6 months after the initiation of the S-1 treatment. The experienceof this case, together with a review of the literature, suggests that FBAL is related to 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity. S-1 may be administered safely to patients with 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity.
Department of Surgery, Niitsu Medical Center Hospital, Niigata, Japan.
The anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil is metabolized by the isolated perfused rat liver and in rats into highly toxic fluoroacetate.
Arellano M, Malet-Martino M, Martino R, Gires P
Br J Cancer. 1998;77(1):79-86.
We report the first demonstration of the biotransformation of the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (FU) into two new metabolites, alpha-fluoro-beta-hydroxypropionic acid (FHPA) and fluoroacetate (FAC), in the isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) and in the rat in vivo. IPRL was perfused with solutions of pure FU at two doses, 15 or 45 mg kg(-1) body weight, and rats were injected i.p. with 180 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight. Fluorine-19 NMR analysis of perfusates from IPRL and rat urine showed the presence of the normal metabolites of FU and low amounts of FHPA (0.4% or 0.1% of injected FU in perfusates from IPRL treated with 15 or 45 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight, respectively; 0.08% of the injected FU in rat urine) and FAC (0.1% or 0.03% of injected FU in perfusates from IPRL treated with 15 or 45 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight, respectively; 0.003% of the injected FU in rat urine). IPRL was also perfused with a solution of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL) hydrochloride at 16.6 mg kg(-1) body weight dose equivalent to 15 mg of FU kg(-1) body weight. Low amounts of FHPA (0.2% of injected FBAL) and FAC (0.07%) were detected in perfusates, thus demonstrating that FHPA and FAC arise from FBAL catabolism. As FAC is a well-known cardiotoxic poison, and FHPA is also cardiotoxic at high doses, the cardiotoxicity of FU might stem from at least two sources. The first one, established in previous papers (Lemaire et al, 1992, 1994), is the presence in commercial solutions of FU of degradation products of FU that are metabolized into FHPA and FAC; these are formed over time in the basic medium necessary to dissolve the drug. The second, demonstrated in the present study, is the metabolism of FU itself into the same compounds.
Biomedical NMR Group, IMRCP Laboratory, UniversitéPaul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.