Medline ® Abstracts for References 78,117
of 'Fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity: Incidence, clinical manifestations, mechanisms, and management'
5-Fluorouracil cardiotoxicity induced by alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine.
Muneoka K, Shirai Y, Yokoyama N, Wakai T, Hatakeyama K
Int J Clin Oncol. 2005 Dec;10(6):441-3.
Cardiotoxicity is a rare complication occurring during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment for malignancies. We herein report the case of a 70-year-old man with 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity, in whom a high serum level of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL) was observed. The patient, who had unresectable colon cancer metastases to the liver and lung, was referred to us for chemotherapy from an affiliated hospital; he had no cardiac history. After admission, the patient received a continuous intravenous infusion of 5-FU (1000 mg/day), during which precordial pain with right bundle branch block occurred concomitantly with a high serum FBAL concentration of 1955 ng/ml. Both the precordial pain and the electrocardiographic changes disappeared spontaneously after the discontinuation of 5-FU. As the precordial pain in this patient was considered to have been due to 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity, the administration of 5-FU was abandoned. Instead, oral administration of S-1 (a derivative of 5-FU), at 200 mg/day twice a week, was instituted, because S-1 has a strong inhibitory effect on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the degradative of 5-FU into FBAL. The serum FBAL concentration subsequently decreased to 352 ng/ml, the same as the value measured on the first day of S-1 administration. Thereafter, no cardiac symptoms were observed. The patient achieved a partial response 6 months after the initiation of the S-1 treatment. The experienceof this case, together with a review of the literature, suggests that FBAL is related to 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity. S-1 may be administered safely to patients with 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity.
Department of Surgery, Niitsu Medical Center Hospital, Niigata, Japan.
Plasma concentrations of 5-fluorouracil and F-beta-alanine following oral administration of S-1, a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitory fluoropyrimidine, as compared with protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil.
Yamada Y, Hamaguchi T, Goto M, Muro K, Matsumura Y, Shimada Y, Shirao K, Nagayama S
Br J Cancer. 2003 Sep;89(5):816-20.
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral S-1, a dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) inhibitory fluoropyrimidine, were compared with those of protracted venous infusion (PVI) of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). In all, 10 patients with gastric cancer received PVI of 5-FU at a dose of 250 mg m(-2) day(-1) for 5 days. After a washout period of 9 days, the patients received two divided doses daily for 28 days. S-1 was administered orally at about 0900 and 1900 hours. The daily dose of S-1 in terms of tegafur was 80 mg day(-1) in patients with a body surface area (BSA) of<1.25 m(2), 100 mg day(-1) in those with a BSA of>or=1.25 m(2) to<1.5 m(2), and 120 mg day(-1) in those with a BSA of>or=1.5 m(2). Plasma concentrations of 5-FU and F-beta-alanine (FBAL) were measured for pharmacokinetic analysis, and the plasma uracil concentration was monitored as a surrogate marker of DPD inhibition (pharmacodynamic analysis) in the same patients on days 1-5 of PVI of 5-FU and on days 1-5 of oral S-1. The area under the curve (AUC(0-10 h)) of 5-FU on day 5 was 728+/-113 ng h ml(-1) for PVI of 5-FU and 1364+/-374 ng h ml(-1) for S-1. The median 5-FU PVI : S-1 ratio of the AUC(0-10 h) of 5-FU was 1.9. The AUC(0-10 h) of FBAL on day 5 of PVI of 5-FU was 9465+/-3225 ng h ml(-1), AUC(0-10 h), as compared with 1725+/-605 ng h ml(-1) on day 5 of S-1 treatment. The AUC(0-10 h) of uracil on day 5 was 252+/-60 ng h ml(-1) with PVI of 5-FU and 12 582+/-3060 ng h ml(-1) with S-1. The AUC(0-10 h) of FBAL was markedly lower and plasma uracil concentrations were significantly higher for S-1 than for PVI of 5-FU, clearly demonstrating the effect of DPD inhibition.
Medical Oncology Division, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan. email@example.com