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Medline ® Abstracts for References 21-27

of 'Fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity: Incidence, clinical manifestations, mechanisms, and management'

21
TI
Pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil assessed with a sensitive mass spectrometric method in patients on a dose escalation schedule.
AU
van Groeningen CJ, Pinedo HM, Heddes J, Kok RM, de Jong AP, Wattel E, Peters GJ, Lankelma J
SO
Cancer Res. 1988 Dec;48(23):6956-61.
 
The pharmacokinetics of 5-fluorouracil (5-FUra) was investigated in 21 patients with advanced cancer (mainly colorectal cancer). 5-FUra was administered as weekly i.v. bolus injections usually at a starting dose of 500 mg/m2. Every 4 weeks the dose was escalated by 20% until dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Whenever possible, pharmacokinetic studies were performed at dose escalation. 5-FUra plasma concentrations were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography and a sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay with a sensitivity as low as 3 x 10(-9) M. According to the 42 plasma concentration versus time curves, in all but one of the patients total body clearance decreased with increasing 5-FUra doses, consistent with the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of 5-FUra. The ultrasensitive assay revealed an almost horizontal phase in the plasma concentration versus time curves at plasma concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-9) M. This plateau did not show correlation with the area under those curves. The use of a logistic regression method showed that clinical toxicity was correlated with the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve of 5-FUra.
AD
Department of Oncology, Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
PMID
22
TI
Clinical significance of monitoring serum levels of 5-fluorouracil by continuous infusion in patients with advanced colonic cancer.
AU
Yoshida T, Araki E, Iigo M, Fujii T, Yoshino M, Shimada Y, Saito D, Tajiri H, Yamaguchi H, Yoshida S
SO
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1990;26(5):352-4.
 
Serum concentrations of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) given by continuous infusion to 19 patients with advanced colonic cancer were measured by an HPLC method, and steady-state concentration (SSc), area under the curve (AUC72) and total body clearance (Cl) were calculated as pharmacokinetic parameters. The serum level of 5-FU rapidly increased, reaching a plateau within 2 h after the start of administration. There were positive correlations between the dose and both SSc (r = 0.578, P less than 0.01) and AUC72 (r = 0.558, P less than 0.05). When the patients were divided into toxic and non-toxic groups according to the degree of toxicity, the values for SSc and AUC72 in the toxic group were significantly higher than those in non-toxic patients. The Cl value in the toxic group was also significantly different from that in the non-toxic group when data were calculated on a log scale. Furthermore, no differences in these parameters between effective and non-effective in these parameters between effective and non-effective groups were detected when the patients were divided into two groups according to anti-neoplastic responses. These results indicate that increased serum concentration does not always provide therapeutic benefits to patients receiving continuous infusions of 5-FU.
AD
Department of Internal Medicine, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.
PMID
23
TI
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of fluorouracil during 72-hour continuous infusion with and without dipyridamole.
AU
Trump DL, Egorin MJ, Forrest A, Willson JK, Remick S, Tutsch KD
SO
J Clin Oncol. 1991 Nov;9(11):2027-35.
 
During a phase I trial of 3-day simultaneous continuous intravenous infusions of varying doses of fluorouracil (5FUra) and 7.7 mg/kg/d of dipyridamole, we examined the relationships between 5FUra dose and steady-state plasma concentration (Css) and the percentage reduction in WBCs, as well as the percentage frequency of stomatitis. The 5FUra was administered at doses ranging from 185 mg/m2/d times three to 3,600 mg/m2/d times three. In 42 patients, 86 cycles of 5FUra plus dipyridamole and 28 cycles of 5FUra alone were analyzed. The Css of 5FUra varied even within the same dose level. When patients receiving the same 5FUra dose were considered, the interpatient coefficient of variation of 5FUra Css in cycles of 5FUra plus dipyridamole was 23% +/- 4.2%. For courses of 5FUra alone, the coefficient of variation of 5FUra was 15.6% +/- 6.5%. When the occurrence of any degree of stomatitis was related to the Css 5FUra, with patients grouped in cohorts of 2-mumol/L increments, the following equations accurately described the frequency of stomatitis: for 5FUra plus dipyridamole, percentage frequency of stomatitis = 100(1-e-0.114Css), r2 = 0.88; for 5FUra alone, percentage frequency stomatitis = 100(1-e0.122Css), r2 = 0.80. When 5FUra dose was substituted for Css, these relationships were as follows: percentage frequency of stomatitis = 100(1-e-0.00031 [dose]), r2 = 0.85; and percentage frequency of stomatitis = 100(1-e-0.00051 [dose]), r2 = 0.80. When the relationship between the percentage reduction in WBC and Css 5FUra was examined, statistically significant relationships were also apparent: for 5FUra plus dipyridamole, percentage reduction in WBC = 100(1-e-0.085Css), r2 = 0.46; for 5FUra alone, percentage reduction in WBC = 100(1-e-0.060Css), r2 = 0.61. When 5FUra dose was substituted for Css, these relatinships were as follows: percentage reduction in WBC = 100(1-e-0.00023 [dose]), r2 = 0.40; percentage reduction in WBC = 100(1-e-0.00024 [dose]), r2 = 0.65. The relationship between either Css 5FUra or dose 5FUra and either stomatitis or myelosuppression were also well described by the modified Hill equation (J Theor Biol 20:171-201, 1968). These analyses indicate that it should be possible to develop therapeutic regimens wherein 5FUra is administered to achieve a targeted Css determined by the risk and severity of toxicity deemed acceptable.
AD
Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710.
PMID
24
TI
Long-term weekly treatment of colorectal metastatic cancer with fluorouracil and leucovorin: results of a multicentric prospective trial of fluorouracil dosage optimization by pharmacokinetic monitoring in 152 patients.
AU
Gamelin E, Boisdron-Celle M, Delva R, Regimbeau C, Cailleux PE, Alleaume C, Maillet ML, Goudier MJ, Sire M, Person-Joly MC, Maigre M, Maillart P, Fety R, Burtin P, Lortholary A, Dumesnil Y, Picon L, Geslin J, Gesta P, Danquechin-Dorval E, Larra F, Robert J
SO
J Clin Oncol. 1998 Apr;16(4):1470-8.
 
PURPOSE: A relationship between fluorouracil (5-FU) dose and response has been previously shown in advanced colorectal cancer. In a previous study with 5-FU stepwise dose escalation in a weekly regimen, and pharmacokinetic monitoring, we defined a therapeutic range for 5-FU plasma levels: 2,000 to 3,000 microg/L (area under the concentration-time curve at 0 to 8 hours [AUC0-8], 16 to 24 mg x h/L). The current study investigated 5-FU therapeutic intensification with individual dose adjustment in a multicentric phase II prospective trial.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Weekly high-dose 5-FU was administered by 8-hour infusion with 400 mg/m2 leucovorin. The initial dose of 5-FU (1,300 mg/m2) was adapted weekly according to 5-FU plasma levels, to reach the therapeutic range previously determined.
RESULTS: A total of 152 patients entered the study from December 1991 to December 1994: 117 patients with measurable metastatic disease and 35 with assessable disease. Toxicity was mainly diarrhea (39%, with 5% grade 3) and hand-foot syndrome (30%, with 2% grade 3). Among 117 patients with measurable disease, 18 had a complete response (CR), 48 a partial response (PR), 35 a minor response (MR) and stable disease (SD), and 16 progressive disease (PD). Median overall survival time was 19 months. The 5-FU therapeutic plasma range was rapidly reached with a variable 5-FU dose in the patient population: mean, 1,803 +/- 386 mg/m2/wk (range, 950 to 3,396). Thirteen patients were immediately in the toxic zone, whereas 51 required a>or = 50% dose increase.
CONCLUSION: Individual 5-FU dose adjustment with pharmacokinetic monitoring provided a high survival rate and percentage of responses, with good tolerance.
AD
Service d'Oncologie Médicale et de Pharmacologie Clinique, Centre Paul Papin, Angers, France. cppapin@unimedia.rf
PMID
25
TI
Individual 5FU-dose adaptation schedule using bimonthly pharmacokinetically modulated LV5FU2 regimen: a feasibility study in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
AU
Ychou M, Duffour J, Pinguet F, Kramar A, Joulia JM, Topart D, Bressolle F
SO
Anticancer Res. 1999 May-Jun;19(3B):2229-35.
 
AIM OF THE STUDY: SFU-dose adaptation optimal schedule using bimonthly LV5FU2 regimen was modulated by previously validated individual pharmacokinetic parameters, in 38 patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
METHODS: At the 1st cure, 5F-U pharmacokinetic parameters (particularly the area under curve (AUC) in mg.h/l.m2) were calculated in all patients. In 19 patients (A), 5FU infusion doses were progressively increased from 25 to 50% (at every cycle), according to AUC levels from 2nd to 6th; in 19 consecutive patients (B), 5FU infusion doses were increased, at the same time, at the 2nd cure, according to a protocol taking in account AUC at the 1st cure: increase of 150% it AUC<5, of 100% if 5<AUC<10, of 50% if 10<AUC<15, of 25% if 15<AUC<20 in case of toxicity<grade 3.
RESULTS: a) AUC in all patients, at the beginning of the treatment averaged 9.05 +/- 3.115 (range from 3.9 to 16.41). Large interindividual variability was observed. b) FU infusion doses at the 2nd cure, increased 40% in group A and 82% in group B. Corresponding AUC increased respectively of 42% and 96%. 3-WHO toxicity 23 (per cycle) occurred not very frequently (8% haematological, 6% digestive and 2% cutaneous toxicity) and remained acceptable.
CONCLUSION: This feasibility study established a 5FU-dose intensification optimal strategy within the bimonthly LV5FU2 schedule with a control for the risk of toxicity. This study constitutes the basis for a multicentre phase II trial to evaluate the importance of this approach in terms of efficacy and survival.
AD
Unit of Digestive Oncology, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Parc Euromédecine, Montpellier, France.
PMID
26
TI
Individual 5-FU dose adaptation in metastatic colorectal cancer: results of a phase II study using a bimonthly pharmacokinetically intensified LV5FU2 regimen.
AU
Ychou M, Duffour J, Kramar A, Debrigode C, Gourgou S, Bressolle F, Pinguet F
SO
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2003 Oct;52(4):282-90. Epub 2003 Jun 19.
 
AIM: The aim of this phase II study was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of the bimonthly, pharmacokinetically intensified LV5FU2 regimen in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancers.
METHODS: A total of 53 patients (23% second-line; 25 male/28 female; mean age 67 years; WHO performance status 0 in 38, 1 in 10 and 2 in 5) were treated in cycle 1 with the standard LV5FU2 regimen (leucovorin 200 mg/m2 per day followed by a 5-FU bolus 400 mg/m2 per day and a 22-h 5-FU continuous infusion 600 mg/m2 per day for two consecutive days every 2 weeks), and the AUC in mg.h/l.m2 was calculated. For cycle 2, according to a predefined schedule depending on the cycle-1 AUC value, in the absence of grade 3 toxicity, the 5-FU infusion dose was increased by 150% for AUC<or =5, by 100% for AUC>5-10, by 50% for AUC>10-15, and by 25% for AUC>15-20. 5-FU plasma concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. A Bayesian methodology was used to assess individual pharmacokinetic parameters using the NONMEM computer program.
RESULTS: Among the 53 eligible patients, 87% (per-protocol population) received an increased dose in cycle 2 and 72% received the same dose. The median relative dose intensity was 1.28 (range 0.5-1.54) compared with the non-adapted theoretical total 5-FU dose. The objective response rate was 37% (95% CI 23-50%) in the intention-to-treat population and 47% (95% CI 29-65%) in the first-line per-protocol population. The median response duration was 10.4 months. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were, respectively, 7 and 18.6 months. PFS and OS in first-line per-protocol patients were, respectively, 9.2 and 20 months. No deaths were attributed to toxicity of 5-FU despite the high doses administered. Of the 53 patients, 19% experienced gastrointestinal and 30% haematological grade 3/4 toxicities. Hand-foot syndrome was common but mild (grade 3 in one patient).
CONCLUSIONS: This strategy could be compared in a phase III trial with the standard LV5FU2 regimen.
AD
Digestive Oncology Unit, CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Parc Euromédecine, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. mychou@valdorel.fnclcc.fr
PMID
27
TI
Clinical impact of pharmacokinetically-guided dose adaptation of 5-fluorouracil: results from a multicentric randomized trial in patients with locally advanced head and neck carcinomas.
AU
Fety R, Rolland F, Barberi-Heyob M, Hardouin A, Campion L, Conroy T, Merlin JL, Rivière A, Perrocheau G, Etienne MC, Milano G
SO
Clin Cancer Res. 1998 Sep;4(9):2039-45.
 
A significant link between 5-fluorouracil (5FU) plasma concentration and its therapeutic activity has been demonstrated in colon and head and neck cancer patients for 5FU used as a continuous infusion. Dose adjustment based on pharmacokinetic follow-up has been proposed to decrease hematological and digestive toxicities, but the clinical impact of this approach has not yet been demonstrated. A randomized multicentric study was conducted to evaluate the clinical interest of 5FU dose adaptation guided by pharmacokinetics. One hundred twenty-two head and neck cancer patients were randomly assigned to receive induction chemotherapy with cisplatin (100 mg/m2, day 1) and 5FU (96-h continuous infusion), either at standard dose (St-arm; 4 g/m2) or at a dose adjusted according to the 5FU area under the curve (AUC0-48h; PK-arm). In total, 106 patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. In the PK-arm (n = 49), 5FU doses and area under the curve were significantly reduced during cycle 2 and cycle 3 (P<0.001) as compared with the St-arm (n = 57). Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombopenia were significantly more frequent in the St-arm as compared with the PK-arm (17.5% versus 7.6%, respectively; P = 0.013). No grade 3-4 mucositis occurred inthe PK-arm, whereas 5.1% was observed in the St-arm (P<0.01). The objective response rate was comparable in the two treatment arms: 77.2% in the St-arm versus 81.7% in the PK-arm. The present study is the first to demonstrate, in a randomized design, the clinical interest of an individual 5FU dose adaptation based on pharmacokinetic survey, in terms of therapeutic index improvement.
AD
Centre RenéGauducheau, Nantes, France. r-fety@gauducheau-nantes.fnclcc.fr
PMID