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Medline ® Abstracts for References 15,18,34,37-39

of 'Fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity: Incidence, clinical manifestations, mechanisms, and management'

15
TI
Symptomatic cardiotoxicity associated with 5-fluorouracil.
AU
Meyer CC, Calis KA, Burke LB, Walawander CA, Grasela TH
SO
Pharmacotherapy. 1997 Jul-Aug;17(4):729-36.
 
A prospective cohort study was conducted in 35 hospitals with oncology units to determine the incidence of symptomatic cardiotoxicity in patients receiving continuous infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and to identify risk factors that could contribute to the development of 5-FU-associated cardiotoxicity. A sample of 483 patients [197 (41%) women, overall average age +/- SD 60.9 +/- 11.9 yrs]were followed for one cycle of 5-FU infusion. Thirty-eight (7.9%) patients had abrupt termination of the infusion. There were 9 (1.9%) cases of suspected or documented cardiotoxic events. Cardiotoxicity occurred in 7 (3.35%) of 209 patients receiving their first course of 5-FU and in 2 (0.73%) other patients (p=0.044). Based on univariate analysis, the following patient groups were at elevated risk of cardiotoxicity: those with preexisting cardiac disease (RR=6.83, p=0.0023); patients receiving calcium channel blockers (RR=4.75, p=0.014); those receiving nitrates (RR=9.18, p=0.007); and patients receiving concomitant etoposide (RR=10.32, p=0.022). Patients with underlying cardiac disease require close monitoring while receiving continuous infusions of 5-FU. They should be observed for signs and symptoms of cardiotoxicity, and vital signs should be measured frequently. Continued reporting of 5-FU-associated cardiotoxicity is necessary to identify other patients at risk.
AD
Drug Information Center, Division of Pharmacy Practice, University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA.
PMID
18
TI
Cardiotoxicity of fluoropyrimidines in different schedules of administration: a prospective study.
AU
Kosmas C, Kallistratos MS, Kopterides P, Syrios J, Skopelitis H, Mylonakis N, Karabelis A, Tsavaris N
SO
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008 Jan;134(1):75-82. Epub 2007 Jul 17.
 
BACKGROUND: Cardiotoxicity associated with 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) administration has been infrequently reported in literature, albeit various series of acute coronary syndromes have recorded a low but definite incidence of the above toxicity. In the present study, patients undergoing 5FU-based and oral capecitabine (Xeloda-based chemotherapy were tested for the potential development of cardiac-related symptoms during their administration.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six hundred and forty-four patients entered the study. Those experiencing any cardiac-related symptoms during 5FU infusion or oral capecitabine were subjected to ECG and serum cardiac enzymes determination. If cardiotoxicity was confirmed, 5FU infusion or oral capecitabine were interrupted, sublingual nitrates administered and cardiac monitoring initiated, while patients with>two-fold enzyme elevation were followed in a coronary care unit for at least 72 h. Cases with acute myocardial infarction were excluded from further 5FU or oral capecitabine treatment.
RESULTS: Overall 26 patients (4.03%) developed symptoms and/or ECG abnormalities due to 5FU and capecitabine. Patients with continuous 5FU infusion presented a higher incidence of cardiotoxicity [14/209; 6.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.3-10.1%]than the remaining (7/317; 2.3%, 95% CI = 0.8-3.3%) (P<0.012). Specifically, an increased incidence of cardiac-related events was encountered in patients with continuous 24-h 5FU + LV infusion for 5 days (12.5%, 95% CI = 2.3-22.7%) rather than in patients with the same schedule without LV (5.3%, 95% CI = 1.95-8.67%) (P<0.027), as well as in patients with short 5FU + LV administration (2.4%, 95% CI = 0.9-3.9%) (P<0.019). Overall, 3/54 patients (5.5%, 95% CI = -0.6-11.1%) on oral capecitabine developed cardiac-related events. Seven out of the 20 patients suffered an acute myocardial infarction, 6 developed ischemia only, while 4 more patients had ECG consistent with coronary vasospasm and 3 with conduction disturbances, of which one subsequently died. Patients administered oral capecitabine had a similar incidence of cardiac-related events; 1/22 (4.5%) patients with advanced breast cancer and 2/32 (6.2%) with colorectal cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study supports the toxic effect of 5-FU on the myocardium, which is largely schedule-dependent, whereas a low but finite risk of such toxicity has been observed with oral capecitabine. A high level of alertness is required when using fluoropyrimidines (i.v. 5FU or oral capecitabine), while their toxic effect on the coronary endothelium and myocardium merits further investigation.
AD
Department of Medicine, 2nd Division of Medical Oncology, "Metaxa" Cancer Hospital, Piraues, 21 Apolloniou Street, 16341 Athens, Greece. ckosm1@ath.forthnet.gr
PMID
34
TI
Risk factors and prevention of cardiotoxicity induced by 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine.
AU
Jensen SA, Sørensen JB
SO
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2006 Oct;58(4):487-93. Epub 2006 Jan 18.
 
AIM: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrug capecitabine are cardiotoxic. This retrospective study aimed to identify risk factors and to give practical measures to make such chemotherapy feasible if cardiotoxicity occur.
METHOD: Review of cardiotoxicity among 668 patients treated with 5-FU or capecitabine for gastrointestinal cancers.
RESULTS: Cardiotoxicity occurred in 29 cases (4.3%). The number of cases according to cardiotoxicity CTC grades 2-4 for patients with and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease were none, 10, and 2 cases, and 3, 14, and no cases, respectively (P=0.16). In three patients intercurrent decrease of renal clearances to<30, 48 and 71 ml min(-1) led to markedly increased cardiotoxicity. Chemotherapy dose reduction to 70 or 50%, either alone or in addition to antiangina medication prevented cardiotoxicity during subsequent chemotherapy in nine (60%) and three (20%) cases out of 15 assessable patients (P=0.001), respectively. To abolish symptoms of cardiotoxicity, sublingual nitroglycerine was efficient for 15 patients and inefficient for two (P=0.001).
CONCLUSION: Cardiac and renal co-morbidity are risk factors for 5-FU induced cardiotoxicity. In this situation, rechallenge with modified 5-FU-based chemotherapy regimen supported by symptomatic medical treatment is feasible.
AD
Department of Oncology 5073, National University Hospital, 9 Blegdamsvej, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark. soren.a.jensen@mail.tele.dk
PMID
37
TI
Cardiotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents: incidence, treatment and prevention.
AU
Pai VB, Nahata MC
SO
Drug Saf. 2000;22(4):263.
 
Cytostatic antibiotics of the anthracycline class are the best known of the chemotherapeutic agents that cause cardiotoxicity. Alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, cisplatin, carmustine, busulfan, chlormethine and mitomycin have also been associated with cardiotoxicity. Other agents that may induce a cardiac event include paclitaxel, etoposide, teniposide, the vinca alkaloids, fluorouracil, cytarabine, amsacrine, cladribine, asparaginase, tretinoin and pentostatin. Cardiotoxicity is rare with some agents, but may occur in>20% of patients treated with doxorubicin, daunorubicin or fluorouracil. Cardiac events may include mild blood pressure changes, thrombosis, electrocardiographic changes, arrhythmias, myocarditis, pericarditis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, cardiac failure (left ventricular failure) and congestive heart failure. These may occur during or shortly after treatment, within days or weeks after treatment, or may not be apparent until months, and sometimes years, after completion of chemotherapy. A number of risk factors may predispose a patient to cardiotoxicity. These are: cumulative dose (anthracyclines, mitomycin); total dose administered during a day or a course (cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, carmustine, fluorouracil, cytarabine); rate of administration (anthracyclines, fluorouracil); schedule of administration (anthracyclines); mediastinal radiation; age; female gender; concurrent administration of cardiotoxic agents; prior anthracycline chemotherapy; history of or pre-existing cardiovascular disorders; and electrolyte imbalances such as hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia. The potential for cardiotoxicity should be recognised before therapy is initiated. Patients should be screened for risk factors, and an attempt to modify them should be made. Monitoring for cardiac events and their treatment will usually depend on the signs and symptoms anticipated and exhibited. Patients may be asymptomatic, with the only manifestation being electrocardiographic changes. Continuous cardiac monitoring, baseline and regular electrocardiographic and echocardiographic studies, radionuclide angiography and measurement of serum electrolytes and cardiac enzymes may be considered in patients with risk factors or those with a history of cardiotoxicity. Treatment of most cardiac events induced by chemotherapy is symptomatic. Agents that can be used prophylactically are few, although dexrazoxane, a cardioprotective agent specific for anthracycline chemotherapy, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Cardiotoxicity can be prevented by screening and modifying risk factors, aggressively monitoring for signs and symptoms as chemotherapy is administered, and continuing follow-up after completion of a course or the entire treatment. Prompt measures such as discontinuation or modification of chemotherapy or use of appropriate drug therapy should be initiated on the basis of changes in monitoring parameters before the patient exhibits signs and symptoms of cardiotoxicity.
AD
Ohio State University, Children's Hospital, Columbus 43210, USA.
PMID
38
TI
A retrospective study of cardiotoxicities induced by 5-fluouracil (5-FU) and 5-FU based chemotherapy regimens in Pakistani adult cancer patients at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital&Research Center.
AU
Khan MA, Masood N, Husain N, Ahmad B, Aziz T, Naeem A
SO
J Pak Med Assoc. 2012 May;62(5):430-4.
 
OBJECTIVE: To study cardiotoxicities, especially bradycardia in cancer patients treated with 5-Fluouracil and 5-Fluouracil based chemotherapy regimens in Pakistani population.
METHODS: Data was extracted from the medical records of all diagnosed cancer patients at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center registered between January 2002 and December 2004 receiving 5- Fluouracil based chemotherapy regimens. The data was analysed retrospectively, including electrocardiogram and cardiac markers. Pearson's Correlation coefficient was calculated to see any possible correlation between 5-Fluouracil alone and 5-Fluouracil based regimens and cardiotoxicity, and other variables.
RESULTS: Symptomatic cardiotoxicity was observed in 60 (19.93%) out of 301 patients whose cases were part of the study. Bradycardia was the most common cardiotoxicity and was observed in 36 (11.96%) patients. Nine (2.99%) mortalities were also observed. The incidence of cardiotoxicity was not significantly different between the patients with and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease (p = 0.095) and having negative correlation - 0.305. Cardiotoxicities were more common with Continuous Infusion (CI) of 5-Fluouracil, radiotherapy concurrent with 5-Fluouracil and when 5-Fluouracil was used in combination with Cisplatinum (CDDP).
CONCLUSION: Cardiotoxicities were more prevalent when 5-Fluouracil was used along with concurrent radiotherapy and with Cisplatinum and when administered in continuous infusion pattern. Hence, 5-Fluouracil and 5-Fluouracil based chemotherapy regimens cause cardiotoxicities, especially bradycardia, in a significant number of cancer patients in Pakistani population.
AD
Department of Adult Oncology/Hematology, National Guard King Khalid Hospital, KAMC-WR, Jeddah, KSA. mansoorskm@yahoo.com
PMID
39
TI
Severe ventricular dysrhythmias and silent ischemia during infusion of the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil and cis-platin.
AU
Hrovatin E, Viel E, Lestuzzi C, Tartuferi L, Zardo F, Brieda M, Dametto E, Piazza R, Antonini-Canterin F, Vaccher E, Meneguzzo N, Nicolosi GL
SO
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2006 Aug;7(8):637-40.
 
The antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil is frequently used in the therapy of various malignancies. Cardiotoxicity has frequently been described during treatment, but there is no common agreement on the need to perform cardiovascular monitoring of patients during 5-fluorouracil administration. We report the case of a young patient with an head-neck cancer on whom a continuous electrocardiogram recording was performed, documenting serious ventricular dysrhythmias in the presence of myocardial ischemia during 5-fluorouracil and cis-platin infusion.
AD
UO Cardiologia-ARC, Dip. Emergenza, AO SM degli Angeli, Italy. e.hrovatin@tin.it
PMID