As with any surgical procedure, anticipating potential difficulties during cesarean delivery and preventing these difficulties or having a plan for management is always the best practice. Although much has been written about techniques for managing difficult vaginal deliveries, there is a paucity of literature to assist obstetricians with a difficult cesarean delivery. The only information available is from case reports, small case series, and expert opinion.
Difficult fetal extraction occurs in 1 to 2 percent of cesarean deliveries . Causes include:
●Impacted fetal head
●Floating fetal head
●Extremely low birth weight infant