Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Overview of management and prognosis
- Carol Weitzman, MD
Carol Weitzman, MD
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Yale School of Medicine
- Pat Rojmahamongkol, MD
Pat Rojmahamongkol, MD
- Yale School of Medicine
- Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand
Prenatal exposure to alcohol is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term that is used to describe the range of effects that can occur in an individual who was prenatally exposed to alcohol and may have lifelong implications and high societal costs .
This topic will provide an overview of the management of FASD. The clinical features and diagnosis of FASD and alcohol use in pregnancy are discussed separately. (See "Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Clinical features and diagnosis" and "Alcohol intake and pregnancy".)
FASD is an umbrella term that encompasses the range of physical, mental, behavioral, and cognitive effects that can occur in individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure [2,3]. In most diagnostic schema, FASD is not a diagnostic term but describes a group of specific conditions, including (table 1) [4,5]:
●Fetal alcohol syndrome
●Partial fetal alcohol syndrome
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- ROLE OF THE PRIMARY CARE PROVIDER
- Early identification
- Education and anticipatory guidance
- Family support
- Medical home
- OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT
- General recommendations
- Targeted interventions
- - Academic skills
- - Executive function/self-regulation
- - Social skills
- - Adaptive skills
- - Parent training
- Asymptomatic children with prenatal alcohol exposure
- INDICATIONS FOR REFERRAL
- Mental health
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS