UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2016 UpToDate®

Fertility awareness-based methods of pregnancy prevention

Author
Victoria Jennings, PhD
Section Editor
Robert L Barbieri, MD
Deputy Editor
Kristen Eckler, MD, FACOG

INTRODUCTION

Fertility awareness-based (FAB) methods for preventing pregnancy are based upon the physiological changes during the menstrual cycle and the functional lifespan of sperm and ova. FAB methods rely on the following [1]:

The periodicity of fertility and infertility

A single ovulation each cycle

The limited duration of viability of the ovum, which can only be fertilized 12 to 24 hours after release

The limited duration of viability of sperm (three to five days in cervical mucus and the upper genital tract)

                                    

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Tue Aug 16 00:00:00 GMT+00:00 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Freundl G, Sivin I, Batár I. State-of-the-art of non-hormonal methods of contraception: IV. Natural family planning. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2010; 15:113.
  2. Gribble JN, Lundgren RI, Velasquez C, Anastasi EE. Being strategic about contraceptive introduction: the experience of the Standard Days Method. Contraception 2008; 77:147.
  3. Chandra A, Martinez GM, Mosher WD, et al. Fertility, family planning, and reproductive health of U.S. women: data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Stat 23 2005; :1.
  4. Mosher WD, Martinez GM, Chandra A, et al. Use of contraception and use of family planning services in the United States: 1982-2002. Adv Data 2004; :1.
  5. Stanford JB, Thurman PB, Lemaire JC. Physicians' knowledge and practices regarding natural family planning. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 94:672.
  6. Fehring RJ, Hanson L, Stanford JB. Nurse-midwives' knowledge and promotion of lactational amenorrhea and other natural family-planning methods for child spacing. J Midwifery Womens Health 2001; 46:68.
  7. Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, Baird DD. Post-ovulatory ageing of the human oocyte and embryo failure. Hum Reprod 1998; 13:394.
  8. Arévalo M, Sinai I, Jennings V. A fixed formula to define the fertile window of the menstrual cycle as the basis of a simple method of natural family planning. Contraception 1999; 60:357.
  9. Alliende ME, Cabezón C, Figueroa H, Kottmann C. Cervicovaginal fluid changes to detect ovulation accurately. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 193:71.
  10. Kursun Z, Cali S, Sakarya S. The Standard Days Method(®): efficacy, satisfaction and demand at regular family planning service delivery settings in Turkey. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2014; 19:203.
  11. Lundgren RI, Karra MV, Yam EA. The role of the Standard Days Method in modern family planning services in developing countries. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2012; 17:254.
  12. World Health Organization multicenter study on menstrual and ovulatory patterns in adolescent girls. II. Longitudinal study of menstrual patterns in the early postmenarcheal period, duration of bleeding episodes and menstrual cycles. World Health Organization Task Force on Adolescent Reproductive Health. J Adolesc Health Care 1986; 7:236.
  13. O'Connor KA, Holman DJ, Wood JW. Menstrual cycle variability and the perimenopause. Am J Hum Biol 2001; 13:465.
  14. Arévalo M, Jennings V, Sinai I. Application of simple fertility awareness-based methods of family planning to breastfeeding women. Fertil Steril 2003; 80:1241.
  15. Sinai I, Cachan J. A Bridge for postpartum women to Standard Days Method®: II. Efficacy study. Contraception 2012; 86:16.
  16. Ferrell RJ, Simon JA, Pincus SM, et al. The length of perimenopausal menstrual cycles increases later and to a greater degree than previously reported. Fertil Steril 2006; 86:619.
  17. Arévalo M, Jennings V, Sinai I. Efficacy of a new method of family planning: the Standard Days Method. Contraception 2002; 65:333.
  18. Sinai I, Jennings V, Arévalo M. The importance of screening and monitoring: the Standard Days Method and cycle regularity. Contraception 2004; 69:201.
  19. Curtis KM, Jatlaoui TC, Tepper NK, et al. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2016. MMWR Recomm Rep 2016; 65:1.
  20. Gribble JN. The standard days method of family planning: a response to Cairo. Int Fam Plan Perspect 2003; 29:188.
  21. World Organization Observation Billings Method. The Billings Ovulation Method: Observations, Charting and Rules page. www.woomb.org/bom/rules/#observations. (Accessed on July 05, 2005).
  22. Hilgers, TW. The Scientific Foundations of the Ovulation Method. Pope John Paul IV Institute, Omaha 1995.
  23. A prospective multicentre trial of the ovulation method of natural family planning. I. The teaching phase. Fertil Steril 1981; 36:152.
  24. Trussell J, Grummer-Strawn L. Further analysis of contraceptive failure of the ovulation method. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991; 165:2054.
  25. Sinai I, Jennings V, Arévalo M. The TwoDay Algorithm: a new algorithm to identify the fertile time of the menstrual cycle. Contraception 1999; 60:65.
  26. Arévalo M, Jennings V, Nikula M, Sinai I. Efficacy of the new TwoDay Method of family planning. Fertil Steril 2004; 82:885.
  27. Jennings V, Sinai I, Sacieta L, Lundgren R. TwoDay Method: a quick-start approach. Contraception 2011; 84:144.
  28. Clubb, E, Knight, J. Fertility: Fertility Awareness and Natural Family Planning. David & Charles, Devon, UK 1996.
  29. Guida M, Tommaselli GA, Pellicano M, et al. An overview on the effectiveness of natural family planning. Gynecol Endocrinol 1997; 11:203.
  30. Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, et al. Contraceptive Technology, 19th ed, Ardent Media, Inc, New York 2007.
  31. Frank-Herrmann P, Heil J, Gnoth C, et al. The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple's sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study. Hum Reprod 2007; 22:1310.
  32. Freundl G, Godehardt E, Kern PA, et al. Estimated maximum failure rates of cycle monitors using daily conception probabilities in the menstrual cycle. Hum Reprod 2003; 18:2628.
  33. Fehring RJ, Raviele K, Schneider M. A comparison of the fertile phase as determined by the Clearplan Easy Fertility Monitor and self-assessment of cervical mucus. Contraception 2004; 69:9.
  34. Bonnar J, Freundl G, Kirkman R. Personal hormone monitoring for contraception. Br J Fam Plann 2000; 26:178.
  35. Guida M, Bramante S, Acunzo G, et al. [Diagnosis of fertility with a personal hormonal evaluation test]. Minerva Ginecol 2003; 55:167.
  36. Bonnar J, Flynn A, Freundl G, et al. Personal hormone monitoring for contraception. Br J Fam Plann 1999; 24:128.
  37. Fehring RJ, Schneider M, Raviele K. Pilot evaluation of an internet-based natural family planning education and service program. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2011; 40:281.
  38. Fehring RJ, Schneider M, Raviele K, et al. Randomized comparison of two Internet-supported fertility-awareness-based methods of family planning. Contraception 2013; 88:24.
  39. Trussell J, Grummer-Strawn L. Contraceptive failure of the ovulation method of periodic abstinence. Fam Plann Perspect 1990; 22:65.
  40. Grimes DA, Gallo MF, Halpern K, et al. Fertility awareness-based methods for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; :CD004860.
  41. Sinai I, Arévalo M. It's all in the timing: coital frequency and fertility awareness-based methods of family planning. J Biosoc Sci 2006; 38:763.
  42. World Health Organization. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. USAID. Family Planning: A Global Handbook for Providers, 2007.
  43. Gray RH, Simpson JL, Kambic RT, et al. Timing of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion among pregnancies occurring during the use of natural family planning. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 172:1567.
  44. Simpson JL, Gray R, Perez A, et al. Fertilisation involving ageing gametes, major birth defects, and Down's syndrome. Lancet 2002; 359:1670.
  45. Klaus H. Natural family planning: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1982; 37:128.
  46. Marshall J. A field trial of the basal-body-temperature method of regulating births. Lancet 1968; 2:8.