Female genital cutting (circumcision)
- Nawal M Nour, MD, MPH
Nawal M Nour, MD, MPH
- Associate Professor in Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
Female genital cutting, also known as female circumcision or genital mutilation, is a culturally determined practice, predominantly performed in parts of Africa and Asia and affecting more than 125 million women and girls worldwide . Immigration patterns have caused clinicians throughout the world to increasingly encounter women who have experienced this practice [2,3]. It is imperative that these providers understand the health and social issues related to female genital cutting so that they can manage the immediate and long-term complications of the procedure.
The role of the clinician in the care of women who have undergone a female genital cutting procedure will be reviewed here.
Female genital cutting refers to the manipulation or removal of external genital organs in girls and women. The World Health Organization classified female genital cutting into four types of procedures.
●Type I consists of excision of the prepuce, with or without excision of part or all of the clitoris.
●Type II involves clitoridectomy and partial or total excision of the labia minora.
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- Nour NM, Michels KB, Bryant AE. Defibulation to treat female genital cutting: effect on symptoms and sexual function. Obstet Gynecol 2006; 108:55.
- Nour NM. Female genital cutting: clinical and cultural guidelines. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2004; 59:272.
- Penna C, Fallani MG, Fambrini M, et al. Type III female genital mutilation: clinical implications and treatment by carbon dioxide laser surgery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187:1550.
- Federal Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act of 1996. Public Law 104 -140, 11O Stat 1327, 1996.
- ORIGINS AND RATIONALE
- COMPLICATIONS AND OUTCOME
- Periprocedural complications
- Long-term gynecological issues
- Obstetrical issues
- - Monitoring labor
- - Pregnancy outcome
- DEFIBULATION COUNSELING AND PROCEDURE
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS