Medline ® Abstract for Reference 1
of 'Eye disorders associated with chronic kidney disease'
Prevalence of ocular fundus pathology in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Grunwald JE, Alexander J, Maguire M, Whittock R, Parker C, McWilliams K, Lo JC, Townsend R, Gadegbeku CA, Lash JP, Fink JC, Rahman M, Feldman H, Kusek J, Ojo A, CRIC Study Group
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5(5):867. Epub 2010 Mar 18.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of ocular fundus pathology in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, a multicenter, longitudinal study of individuals with varying stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS,&MEASUREMENTS: In this cross-sectional study, 45 degree digital photos of the disc and macula in both eyes were obtained by nonophthalmologic personnel using a nonmydriatic Canon CR-DGI fundus camera in 1936 individuals who participated in the CRIC study. Photographs were assessed in a masked manner by graders and a retinal specialist at a central photograph reading center. The purpose of this review was to inform participants quickly of conditions that warranted a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist.
RESULTS: Among the 1936 participants who were photographed, 1904 (98%) had assessable photographs in at least one eye. Eye pathologies that required afollow-up examination by an ophthalmologist were identified in 864 (45%) of these 1904 participants. These eye pathologies included, among others, retinopathy (diabetic and/or hypertensive), a finding that was observed in 482 (25%) of these 1904 participants. Three percent (65 participants) of the 1904 participants had serious eye conditions that required urgent follow-up and treatment. Lower estimated GFR and cardiovascular disease were associated with greater eye pathology. Estimated GFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) was associated with a three times higher risk for retinopathy.
CONCLUSIONS: We found a high prevalence of fundus pathology in participants with CKD. This finding supports recommendations for regular complete eye examinations in the CKD population.
Department of Ophthamology, University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. email@example.com