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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 6

of 'Extravasation injury from chemotherapy and other non-antineoplastic vesicants'

Extravasation of chemotherapeutic agents: prevention and treatment.
Goolsby TV, Lombardo FA
Semin Oncol. 2006;33(1):139.
Most chemotherapeutic agents can cause varying degrees of local tissue injuries when extravasated. The medical treatment of extravasation is based on proper maintenance of the intravenous (IV) line and application of cold or warm compresses, plus the use of antidotes when available. Antidotes for extravasation that have been shown to be useful are sodium thiosulfate for nitrogen mustard, dimethylsulfoxide for anthracyclines and mitomycin, and hyaluronidase for the vinca alkaloids. New treatments include dexrazoxane, sargramostim, and hyperbaric oxygen for doxorubicin extravasations. Tissue damage secondary to drug infiltration occurs as a result of one of two major mechanisms: (1) the drug is absorbed by local cells in the tissue and binds to critical structures (eg, DNA, microtubules), causing cell death; and (2) the drug does not bind to cellular DNA. Damage to immediately adjacent tissue is more readily neutralized than is damage to surrounding tissue.
Division of Clinical and Administrative Pharmacy Sciences, Howard University College of Pharmacy, Washington, DC 20059, USA.