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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 55

of 'Extravasation injury from chemotherapy and other non-antineoplastic vesicants'

Treatment of anthracycline extravasation with dexrazoxane.
Langer SW, Sehested M, Jensen PB
Clin Cancer Res. 2000;6(9):3680.
Accidental extravasation of anthracyclines is a feared complication. Present treatment consists of local cooling and extensive surgical debridement, which often results in severe morbidity. All clinically important anthracyclines are topoisomerase II poisons that are antagonized by topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitors such as dexrazoxane. Therefore, we investigated whether dexrazoxane protects against extravasation lesions caused by anthracyclines. B6D2F1 mice received s.c. daunorubicin, doxorubicin, or idarubicin followed by systemic treatment with dexrazoxane or saline. One single systemic dose of dexrazoxane immediately after s.c. administration of doxorubicin, daunorubicin, or idarubicin reduced the tissue lesions (expressed as area under the curve of wound size times duration) by 96% (P<0.0001), 70% (P<0.0001), and 87% (P = 0.0004), respectively. Moreover, the treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the fraction of mice with wounds as well as the duration of wounds. The induction of wounds was dose-dependent, as was the degree of protection by dexrazoxane. Dexrazoxane could be administered up to 3 h after the anthracycline without loss of protection. Triple-dosage of dexrazoxane tended to be more effective than a single injection. Dexrazoxane had no effect on lesions induced by hydrogen peroxide. This is the first report of use of a topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor such as dexrazoxane in the treatment of anthracycline extravasation injuries. These convincing preclinical data represent a novel nontoxic approach that can easily be implemented into the clinical handling of accidental extravasation of anthracyclines.
The Laboratory of Experimental Medical Oncology, The Finsen and Laboratory Centers, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. swlanger@dad1net.dk