Medline ® Abstracts for References 98,99
of 'Evaluation of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in children'
Pediatric sleep questionnaire: prediction of sleep apnea and outcomes.
Chervin RD, Weatherly RA, Garetz SL, Ruzicka DL, Giordani BJ, Hodges EK, Dillon JE, Guire KE
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(3):216.
OBJECTIVES: To further validate a questionnaire about symptoms of childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to compare the questionnaire with polysomnography in their ability to predict outcomes of adenotonsillectomy.
DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data from a longitudinal study.
SETTING: University-based sleep disorders laboratory.
PARTICIPANTS: The Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort, comprising 105 children aged 5.0 to 12.9 years at entry. Intervention Parents completed the 22-item Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (SRBD) scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, and children underwent polysomnography before and 1 year after clinically indicated adenotonsillectomy (n = 78, usually for suspected OSA) or unrelated surgical care (n = 27).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Findings from commonlyused hyperactivity ratings, attention tests, and sleepiness tests.
RESULTS: At baseline, a high SRBD scale score (1 SD above the mean) predicted an approximately 3-fold increased risk of OSA on polysomnography (odds ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-4.68). One year later, OSA and symptoms had largely resolved, but a high SRBD score still predicted an approximately 2-fold increased risk of residual OSA on polysomnography (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.18). Compared with several standard polysomnographic measures of OSA, the baseline SRBD scale better predicted initial hyperactivity ratings and 1-year improvement, similarly predicted sleepiness and its improvement, and similarly failed to predict attention deficit or its improvement.
CONCLUSIONS: The SRBD scale predicts polysomnographic results to an extent useful for research but not reliable enough for most individual patients. However, the SRBD scale may predict OSA-related neurobehavioral morbidity and its response to adenotonsillectomy as well or better than does polysomnography.
Sleep Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. email@example.com
Pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ): validity and reliability of scales for sleep-disordered breathing, snoring, sleepiness, and behavioral problems.
Chervin RD, Hedger K, Dillon JE, Pituch KJ
Sleep Med. 2000;1(1):21.
Objective: To develop and validate questionnaire scales that can be used in research to investigate the presence of childhood SRBDs and prominent symptom complexes, including snoring, daytime sleepiness, and related behavioral disturbances.Background: Obstructive sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) are common but usually undiagnosed among children. Methods to help identify SRBDs without the expense of polysomnography could greatly facilitate clinical and epidemiological research.Methods: Subjects were children aged 2-18 years who had polysomnographically-confirmed SRBDs (n=54) or appointments at either of two general pediatrics clinics (n=108). Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire which contained items under consideration for inclusion in desired scales.Results: Item reduction, based on data from a randomly selected 50% of the subjects (group A), produced a 22-item SRBD score that was strongly associated with diagnosis of an SRBD (P<0.0001) in a logistic regression model that accounted for age and gender. Diagnosis was also strongly associated with subscores for snoring (four items, P<0.0001), sleepiness (four items, P=0.0003), and behavior (six items, P<0.0001) among group A subjects. The scales performed similarly well among group B subjects, and among subjects of different ages and gender. In group A and B subjects, respectively, a selected criterion SRBD score produced a sensitivity of 0.85 and 0.81; a specificity of 0.87 and 0.87; and a correct classification for 86 and 85% of subjects. The scales showed good internal consistency and, in a separate sample (n=21), good test-retest stability.Conclusions: These scales for childhood SRBDs, snoring, sleepiness, and behavior are valid and reliable instruments that can be used to identify SRBDs or associated symptom-constructs in clinical research when polysomnography is not feasible.
Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann, Arbor, USA