Medline ® Abstracts for References 8,80,81
of 'Evaluation of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in children'
Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Marcus CL, Brooks LJ, Draper KA, Gozal D, Halbower AC, Jones J, Schechter MS, Ward SD, Sheldon SH, Shiffman RN, Lehmann C, Spruyt K, American Academy of Pediatrics
OBJECTIVE: This technical report describes the procedures involved in developing recommendations on the management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
METHODS: The literature from 1999 through 2011 was evaluated.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 3166 titles were reviewed, of which 350 provided relevant data. Most articles were level II through IV. The prevalence of OSAS ranged from 0% to 5.7%, with obesity being an independent risk factor. OSAS was associated with cardiovascular, growth, and neurobehavioral abnormalities and possibly inflammation. Most diagnostic screening tests had low sensitivity and specificity. Treatment of OSAS resulted in improvements in behavior and attention and likely improvement in cognitive abilities. Primary treatment is adenotonsillectomy (AT). Data were insufficient to recommend specific surgical techniques; however, children undergoing partial tonsillectomy should be monitored for possible recurrence of OSAS. Although OSAS improved postoperatively, the proportion of patients who had residual OSAS ranged from 13% to 29% in low-risk populations to 73% when obese children were included and stricter polysomnographic criteria were used. Nevertheless, OSAS may improve after AT even in obese children, thus supporting surgery as a reasonable initial treatment. A significant number of obese patients required intubation or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) postoperatively, which reinforces the need for inpatient observation. CPAP was effective in the treatment of OSAS, but adherence is a major barrier. For this reason, CPAP is not recommended as first-line therapy for OSAS when AT is an option. Intranasal steroids may ameliorate mild OSAS, but follow-up is needed. Data were insufficient to recommend rapid maxillary expansion.
Night-to-night variability of polysomnography in children with suspected obstructive sleep apnea.
Katz ES, Greene MG, Carson KA, Galster P, Loughlin GM, Carroll J, Marcus CL
J Pediatr. 2002;140(5):589.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a single polysomnographic night was a valid measure of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing.
STUDY DESIGN: The night-to-night variability of respiratory and sleep parameters was measured prospectively in 30 snoring children aged 1.6 to 11.3 years (mean +/- SD, 4.1 +/- 2) by using 2 nocturnal polysomnograms performed 7 to 27 days apart (14 +/- 5 days).
RESULTS: The mean of the respiratory variables including apnea index, apnea/hypopnea index, arterial oxygen saturation, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide were not significantly different from night to night. Among the sleep parameters, there was no significant night-to-night difference in sleep efficiency, arousal index, percent rapid eye movement, or percent of slow wave sleep. Only the percentage of stage 2 was significantly different between the nights. The polysomnographic clinical diagnosis remained the same on both nights for all children, although the disease severity differed slightly in 2 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: There is little clinically significant night-to-night variability in pediatric polysomnography, and no first-night effect. These data suggest that a single polysomnographic night is an adequate measure of the OSAS in children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing.
Eudowood Divison of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
First night effect for polysomnographic data in children and adolescents with suspected sleep disordered breathing.
Verhulst SL, Schrauwen N, De Backer WA, Desager KN
Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(3):233. Epub 2005 Dec 13.
AIMS: To assess the presence of a first night effect (FNE) in children and adolescents and to examine if a single night polysomnography (PSG) is sufficient for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS).
METHODS: Prospective case study of 70 patients (group 1: 2-6 years, n = 22; group 2: 7-12 years, n = 32; group 3: 13-17 years, n = 16) referred for OSAS. Diagnostic criteria for OSAS: one or more of the following: (1) obstructive apnoea index (OAI)>or =1; (2) obstructive apnoea hypopnoea index (oAHI)>or =2; (3) SaO2<or =89% in association with obstruction.
RESULTS: In all age groups, but mainly in the oldest children, REMS increased during the second night, mainly at the expense of stage 2 sleep. The first night PSG correctly identified OSAS in 86%, 91%, and 100% of the children for groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively. This represents 9% false negatives for OSAS when only the first night PSG was used. All cases missed had mild OSAS, except for one with oAHI>5 on night 2. There were also seven patients with OSAS on night 1 but with a normal PSG on night 2: all had oAHI<5.
CONCLUSION: There is a FNE in children and adolescents. A single night PSG is sufficient for diagnosing OSAS, but in cases with a suggestive history and examination and with a negative first night, a second night study might be advisable.
Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Antwerp, Belgium. email@example.com