Medline ® Abstracts for References 8,14,77
of 'Evaluation of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in children'
Diagnosis and management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.
Marcus CL, Brooks LJ, Draper KA, Gozal D, Halbower AC, Jones J, Schechter MS, Ward SD, Sheldon SH, Shiffman RN, Lehmann C, Spruyt K, American Academy of Pediatrics
OBJECTIVE: This technical report describes the procedures involved in developing recommendations on the management of childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
METHODS: The literature from 1999 through 2011 was evaluated.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 3166 titles were reviewed, of which 350 provided relevant data. Most articles were level II through IV. The prevalence of OSAS ranged from 0% to 5.7%, with obesity being an independent risk factor. OSAS was associated with cardiovascular, growth, and neurobehavioral abnormalities and possibly inflammation. Most diagnostic screening tests had low sensitivity and specificity. Treatment of OSAS resulted in improvements in behavior and attention and likely improvement in cognitive abilities. Primary treatment is adenotonsillectomy (AT). Data were insufficient to recommend specific surgical techniques; however, children undergoing partial tonsillectomy should be monitored for possible recurrence of OSAS. Although OSAS improved postoperatively, the proportion of patients who had residual OSAS ranged from 13% to 29% in low-risk populations to 73% when obese children were included and stricter polysomnographic criteria were used. Nevertheless, OSAS may improve after AT even in obese children, thus supporting surgery as a reasonable initial treatment. A significant number of obese patients required intubation or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) postoperatively, which reinforces the need for inpatient observation. CPAP was effective in the treatment of OSAS, but adherence is a major barrier. For this reason, CPAP is not recommended as first-line therapy for OSAS when AT is an option. Intranasal steroids may ameliorate mild OSAS, but follow-up is needed. Data were insufficient to recommend rapid maxillary expansion.
Practice parameters for the respiratory indications for polysomnography in children.
Aurora RN, Zak RS, Karippot A, Lamm CI, Morgenthaler TI, Auerbach SH, Bista SR, Casey KR, Chowdhuri S, Kristo DA, Ramar K, American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Sleep. 2011;34(3):379. Epub 2011 Mar 1.
BACKGROUND: There has been marked expansion in the literature and practice of pediatric sleep medicine; however, no recent evidence-based practice parameters have been reported. These practice parameters are the first of 2 papers that assess indications for polysomnography in children. This paper addresses indications for polysomnography in children with suspected sleep related breathing disorders. These recommendations were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed, and the American Academy of Neurology grading system was used to assess the quality of evidence. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PSG USE: 1. Polysomnography in children should be performed and interpreted in accordance with the recommendations of the AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events. (Standard) 2. Polysomnography is indicated when the clinical assessment suggests the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children. (Standard) 3. Children with mild OSAS preoperatively should have clinical evaluation following adenotonsillectomy to assess for residual symptoms. If there are residual symptoms of OSAS, polysomnography should be performed. (Standard) 4. Polysomnography is indicated following adenotonsillectomy to assess for residual OSAS in children with preoperative evidence for moderate to severe OSAS, obesity, craniofacial anomalies that obstruct the upper airway, and neurologic disorders (e.g., Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and myelomeningocele). (Standard) 5. Polysomnography is indicated for positive airway pressure (PAP) titration in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (Standard) 6. Polysomnography is indicated when the clinical assessment suggests the diagnosis of congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome or sleep related hypoventilation due to neuromuscular disorders or chest wall deformities. It is indicated in selected cases of primary sleep apnea of infancy. (Guideline) 7. Polysomnography is indicated when there is clinical evidence of a sleep related breathing disorder in infants who have experienced an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE). (Guideline) 8. Polysomnography is indicated in children being considered for adenotonsillectomy to treat obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. (Guideline) 9. Follow-up PSG in children on chronic PAP support is indicated to determine whether pressure requirements have changed as a result of the child's growth and development, if symptoms recur while on PAP, or if additional or alternate treatment is instituted. (Guideline) 10. Polysomnography is indicated after treatment of children for OSAS with rapid maxillary expansion to assess for the level of residual disease and to determine whether additional treatment is necessary. (Option) 11. Children with OSAS treated with an oral appliance should have clinical follow-up and polysomnography to assess response to treatment. (Option) 12. Polysomnography is indicated for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) titration in children with other sleep related breathing disorders. (Option) 13. Children treated with mechanical ventilation may benefit from periodic evaluation with polysomnographyto adjust ventilator settings. (Option) 14. Children treated with tracheostomy for sleep related breathing disorders benefit from polysomnography as part of the evaluation prior to decannulation. These children should be followed clinically after decannulation to assess for recurrence of symptoms of sleep related breathing disorders. (Option) 15. Polysomnography is indicated in the following respiratory disorders only if there is a clinical suspicion for an accompanying sleep related breathing disorder: chronic asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or chest wall abnormality such as kyphoscoliosis. (Option) RECOMMENDATIONS AGAINST PSG USE: 16. Nap (abbreviated) polysomnography is not recommended for the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children. (Option) 17. Children considered for treatment with supplemental oxygen do not routinely require polysomnography for management of oxygen therapy. (Option)
CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence in the field of pediatric sleep medicine indicates that PSG has clinical utility in the diagnosis and management of sleep related breathing disorders. The accurate diagnosis of SRBD in the pediatric population is best accomplished by integration of polysomnographic findings with clinical evaluation.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Clinical practice guideline: Polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing prior to tonsillectomy in children.
Roland PS, Rosenfeld RM, Brooks LJ, Friedman NR, Jones J, Kim TW, Kuhar S, Mitchell RB, Seidman MD, Sheldon SH, Jones S, Robertson P, American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;145(1 Suppl):S1. Epub 2011 Jun 15.
OBJECTIVE: This guideline provides otolaryngologists with evidence-based recommendations for using polysomnography in assessing children, aged 2 to 18 years, with sleep-disordered breathing and are candidates for tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy. Polysomnography is the electrographic recording of simultaneous physiologic variables during sleep and is currently considered the gold standard for objectively assessing sleep disorders.
PURPOSE: There is no current consensus or guideline on when children 2 to 18 years of age, who are candidates for tonsillectomy, are recommended to have polysomnography. The primary purpose of this guideline is to improve referral patterns for polysomnography among these patients. In creating this guideline, the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery Foundation selected a panel representing the fields of anesthesiology, pulmonology medicine, otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, pediatrics, and sleep medicine.
RESULTS: The committee made the following recommendations: (1) before determining the need for tonsillectomy, the clinician should refer children with sleep-disordered breathing for polysomnography if they exhibit certain complex medical conditions such as obesity, Down syndrome, craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, sickle cell disease, or mucopolysaccharidoses. (2) The clinician should advocate for polysomnography prior to tonsillectomy for sleep-disordered breathing in children without any of the comorbidities listed in statement 1 for whom the need for surgery is uncertain or when there is discordance between tonsillar size on physical examination and the reported severity of sleep-disordered breathing. (3) Clinicians should communicate polysomnography results to the anesthesiologist prior to the induction of anesthesia for tonsillectomy in a child with sleep-disordered breathing. (4) Clinicians should admit children with obstructive sleep apnea documented on polysomnography for inpatient, overnight monitoring after tonsillectomy if they are younger than age 3 or have severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index of 10 or more obstructive events/hour, oxygen saturation nadir less than 80%, or both). (5) In children for whom polysomnography is indicated to assess sleep-disordered breathing prior to tonsillectomy, clinicians should obtain laboratory-based polysomnography, when available.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas, USA.