Medline ® Abstract for Reference 28
of 'Evaluation of suspected obstructive sleep apnea in children'
Prevalence and risk factors of habitual snoring in primary school children.
Li AM, Au CT, So HK, Lau J, Ng PC, Wing YK
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of habitual snoring (HS) in primary school children and to evaluate the diurnal symptoms and conditions that may be associated with it.
METHODS: A validated questionnaire completed by parents was used to assess the sleep and daytime behaviors of Chinese children aged 5 to 14 years. Thirteen primary schools in two representative districts were randomly selected.
RESULTS: A total of 6,349 out of 9,172 questionnaires (response rate 69.2%) with complete answers were returned. The prevalence rate of HS was 7.2%. Male sex (odds ratio [OR][95% CI]: 2.5 [1.7-3.6]), BMI z score (OR [95% CI]: 1.4 [1.1-1.6]), maternal HS (OR [95% CI]: 3.4 [2.0-5.7]), paternal HS (OR [95% CI]: 3.8 [2.7-5.5]), allergic rhinitis (OR [95% CI]: 2.9 [2.0-4.2]), asthma (OR [95% CI]: 2.4 [1.2-5.2]), nasosinusitis (OR [95% CI]: 4.0 [1.5-10.6]), and tonsillitis (OR [95% CI]: 3.1 [1.9-5.1]) in the past 12 months were identified to be independent risk factors associated with HS. HS was also associated with daytime, nocturnal, parasomniac, and sleep-related breathing symptoms. HS was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for parent-reported poor temper (OR [95% CI]: 1.9 [1.4-2.5]), hyperactivity (OR [95%CI]: 1.7 [1.2-2.5]), and poor school performance (OR [95% CI]: 1.7 [1.2-2.5]).
CONCLUSIONS: HS was a significant and prevalent problem in primary school children. Male sex, obesity, parental HS, atopic symptoms, and history of upper respiratory infections were significant risk factors. HS was also associated with sleep-disordered breathing symptoms and adverse neurobehavioral outcomes.
Department of Pediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. firstname.lastname@example.org