Evaluation of gross hematuria in children
- Olivia Gillion Boyer, MD, PhD
Olivia Gillion Boyer, MD, PhD
- Associate Professor of Pediatrics
- Pediatric Nephrology, Imagine Institute, Paris-Descartes University, Hôpital Necker - Enfants Malades, Paris, France
- Section Editors
- Patrick Niaudet, MD
Patrick Niaudet, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Nephrology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris, France
- Laurence S Baskin, MD, FAAP
Laurence S Baskin, MD, FAAP
- Section Editor — Pediatric Urology
- Frank Hinman, Jr., MD, Distinguished Professorship in Pediatric Urology
- Chief Pediatric Urology
- Professor of Urology and Pediatrics
- UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital
Gross hematuria is defined by the presence of an increased number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine that is visible to the naked eye. Although an uncommon occurrence in children, nevertheless it is a disturbing finding for both the affected child and his/her family.
The causes and evaluation of gross hematuria in children will be reviewed here. The evaluation of children with microscopic hematuria is discussed separately. (See "Evaluation of microscopic hematuria in children".)
Gross hematuria is suspected when red or brown urine is present. However, red or brown urine can be due to causes other than blood including the following (table 1):
●Pigments from drugs (eg, phenazopyridine, rifampicin) or foods (eg, beets)
●Metabolites associated with other clinical conditions (eg, porphyria)
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